As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 11, 2022

Registration No. 333-262668

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

________________________________________

AMENDMENT NO. 1
TO
FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

________________________________________

CEPTON, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

________________________________________

Delaware

 

3714

 

27-2447291

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

399 West Trimble Road
San Jose, California 95131
(408) 459-7579

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

________________________________________

Jun Pei
Cepton, Inc.
399 West Trimble Road
San Jose, California 95131
(408) 459-7579

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

________________________________________

Copies to:

Paul Sieben, Esq.
Jeeho M. Lee, Esq.
Noah Kornblith, Esq.
O’Melveny & Myers LLP
2765 Sand Hill Road
Menlo Park, California 94025
(650) 473
-2600

________________________________________

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:    From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box:

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

       

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 11, 2022

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

CEPTON, INC.

138,431,899 Shares of Common Stock
5,175,000 Warrants to Purchase Shares of Common Stock
13,800,000 Shares of Common Stock Underlying Warrants

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Securityholders”) of up to 138,431,899 shares of our common stock, par value $0.00001 per share (“common stock”), 5,175,000 warrants to purchase shares of common stock and 5,175,000 shares of common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of the warrants, consisting of:

•        up to 122,903,551 shares of common stock that were issued as consideration in the Business Combination (the “Consideration Shares”). The Consideration Shares were acquired by the Selling Securityholders based on a value of $10.00 per share of common stock, however, these shares were issued in exchange for shares of Cepton Technologies, Inc. that were acquired by employees, investors and others through private placements, equity award grants and other sales at prices that equate to purchase prices of less than $10.00 per share of common stock, and, in some cases, including equity securities purchased in connection with or following the founding of Cepton Technologies, Inc., purchase prices of approximately $0.01 per share of common stock;

•        up to 5,265,848 shares of common stock subject to vesting and/or exercise of Legacy Cepton equity awards that were assumed in connection with the Business Combination (the “Option Shares”). Upon exercise of the applicable Legacy Cepton equity awards, the applicable Selling Securityholders will acquire the Option Shares at prices ranging from $0.10 to $5.34 per share of common stock;

•        up to 5,950,000 shares of common stock (the “PIPE Shares”) that were issued in a private placement pursuant to the terms of the PIPE Subscription Agreements (as defined below) in connection with the Business Combination. The PIPE Shares were acquired by the applicable Selling Securityholders at a price of $10.00 per share of common stock;

•        up to 4,312,500 shares of common stock (the “Founder Shares”) that were issued upon the conversion of Growth Capital Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation (“GCAC”) Class B common stock, originally issued in private placements, which, pursuant to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation were automatically converted into shares of common stock, on a one-for-one basis, on the date of the closing of the Business Combination. The Founder Shares were acquired at a purchase price equivalent to approximately $0.006 per share of common stock;

•        up to 5,175,000 warrants (“Private Placement Warrants”) that were originally issued in a private placement at the time of GCAC’s initial public offering on February 2, 2021 (the “GCAC IPO”). The Private Placement Warrants were acquired at a purchase price of $1.00 per Private Placement Warrant; and

•        5,175,000 shares of common stock (the “Private Warrant Shares”) issuable upon the exercise of the Private Placement Warrants.

This prospectus also relates to the issuance by us of up to 13,800,000 shares of common stock (the “Warrant Shares”) comprised of 8,625,000 shares of common stock (the “Public Warrant Shares”) that are issuable by us upon the exercise of the public warrants sold as part of the units in the GCAC IPO (the “Public Warrants”) and the 5,175,000 Private Warrant Shares. The Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants each entitle the holder thereof to purchase one share of our common stock for $11.50 per share.

We are registering the offer and sale of these securities to satisfy certain registration rights we have granted. The Selling Securityholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales of the shares of our common stock or warrants, except with respect to amounts received by us upon the exercise of the warrants. Because the exercise price of the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants substantially exceeds the current trading price of our common stock, it is unlikely that holders of our warrants will be able to exercise such warrants in the near future, if at all. As a result, we are unlikely to receive any proceeds from the exercise of our warrants in the near future, if at all. We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of these securities, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The Selling Securityholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of shares of our common stock or warrants. See section entitled “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 127 of this prospectus.

Due to the significant number of shares of our common stock that were redeemed in connection with the Business Combination, the number of shares of common stock that the Selling Securityholders can sell into the public markets pursuant to this prospectus may exceed our public float. As a result, the resale of shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus could have a significant negative impact on the trading price of our common stock. This impact may be heighted by the fact that, as described above, certain of the Selling Securityholders purchased, or are able to purchase, shares of our common stock at prices that are well below the current trading price of our common stock. The 152,231,899 shares that may be resold and/or issued into the public markets pursuant to this prospectus represent approximately 88% of the shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2022 (after giving effect to the issuance of the Option Shares, Public Warrant Shares and Private Warrant Shares).

Our common stock and Public Warrants are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “CPTN” and “CPTNW,” respectively. As of March 31, 2022, the closing price of our common stock and warrants was $3.88 and $0.49, respectively.

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable federal securities laws and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS THAT ARE DESCRIBED IN THE “RISK FACTORS” SECTION BEGINNING ON PAGE 10 OF THIS PROSPECTUS.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the securities to be issued under this prospectus or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is            , 2022.

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

INTRODUCTORY NOTE AND FREQUENTLY USED TERMS

 

1

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

3

SUMMARY OF THE PROSPECTUS

 

5

THE OFFERING

 

8

RISK FACTORS

 

10

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

46

MARKET PRICE AND DIVIDEND INFORMATION

 

47

UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION AND OTHER DATA

 

48

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

60

BUSINESS

 

76

MANAGEMENT

 

94

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

100

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PERSON TRANSACTIONS

 

106

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

 

110

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

 

117

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

 

119

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

123

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

127

LEGAL MATTERS

 

129

EXPERTS

 

129

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

130

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

F-1

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. No one has been authorized to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is dated as of the date set forth on the cover hereof. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than that date.

For investors outside the United States: We have not done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.

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INTRODUCTORY NOTE AND FREQUENTLY USED TERMS

On February 10, 2022 (the “Closing” and such date the “Closing Date”), Growth Capital Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation (“GCAC”), and GCAC Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and newly formed wholly-owned subsidiary of GCAC (“Merger Sub”), consummated the previously announced Business Combination pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement.

On the Closing Date, (i) GCAC changed its name to “Cepton, Inc.” (“Cepton” or the “Company”), (ii) Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Cepton (the “Merger”), with Legacy Cepton surviving the Merger as a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, (iii) the Company issued 5,950,000 shares of common stock to certain investors in exchange for $59.5 million in consideration and (iv) the parties to the Business Combination Agreement consummated the other transactions contemplated thereby.

Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “Cepton,” the “Company,” “us,” “we,” “our” and any related terms prior to the closing of the Business Combination are intended to mean Cepton Technologies, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and after the closing of the Business Combination, Cepton, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Amended and Restated Charter” means the second amended and restated certificate of incorporation of Cepton, in effect as of the date of this prospectus.

Business Combination” means the Merger and the other transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.

Business Combination Agreement” means the Business Combination Agreement, dated August 4, 2021, as amended by the Amendment to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of January 21, 2022, by and among GCAC, Merger Sub and Cepton.

Cepton” means Cepton, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

Cepton Board” means the board of directors of Cepton.

Closing” means the closing of the Business Combination.

common stock” means the common stock, par value $0.00001 per share, of Cepton, Inc.

DGCL” means the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as amended.

Earnout Shares” means the up to 13,000,000 shares of common stock that may be issued to Legacy Cepton securityholders if certain share prices of common stock are achieved and other conditions are satisfied.

Founder Shares” means GCAC Class B common stock initially purchased by our Sponsor, Nautilus and HB Strategies LLC in private placement transactions prior to the GCAC IPO, and the shares of common stock issued upon the conversion thereof as provided herein.

GCAC” means Growth Capital Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation, which was renamed “Cepton, Inc.” in connection with the Closing.

GCAC Board” means the board of directors of GCAC prior to the Business Combination.

GCAC Charter” means GCAC’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation as filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on January 29, 2021.

GCAC Class A common stock” means the Class A common stock, par value $0.0001, of GCAC.

GCAC Class B common stock” means the Class B common stock, par value $0.0001, of GCAC.

GCAC IPO” means GCAC’s initial public offering that was consummated by GCAC on February 2, 2021.

Legacy Cepton” means Cepton Technologies, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and includes the surviving corporation after the Merger. References herein to Cepton will include its subsidiaries, including Legacy Cepton, to the extent reasonably applicable

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Legacy Cepton Board” means the board of directors of Legacy Cepton.

Legacy Cepton Class F stock” means shares of Class F stock, par value of $0.00001 per share, of Legacy Cepton.

Merger” means the merger of Merger Sub with and into Legacy Cepton, with Legacy Cepton continuing as the surviving corporation and as a wholly-owned subsidiary of GCAC (which changed its name to Cepton, Inc. upon the Closing), in accordance with the terms of the Business Combination Agreement.

Merger Sub” means GCAC Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation.

Nautilus” means Nautilus Carriers LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, an affiliate of Prokopios “Akis” Tsirigakis and George Syllantavos, GCAC’s current co-Chief Executive Officers as of the date of this prospectus.

Trust Account” means the trust account of GCAC, which holds the net proceeds of the GCAC IPO, including from overallotment securities sold by GCAC’s underwriters, and the sale of the Private Placement Warrants, together with interest earned thereon, less amounts released to pay franchise and income tax obligations and up to $100,000 for dissolution expenses, and amounts paid pursuant to redemptions.

Units” means Units issued in the GCAC IPO, including any overallotment securities acquired by GCAC’s underwriters, consisting of one share of GCAC Class A common stock and one-half of one Public Warrant.

Warrants” means any of the Private Placement Warrants and the Public Warrants.

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements contained in this prospectus may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the “safe harbor” provisions of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In addition, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of words such as “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “seek,” “target,” “designed to” or other similar expressions that predict or indicate future events or trends or that are not statements of historical matters. We caution readers of this prospectus that these forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control, that could cause the actual results to differ materially from the expected results. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding estimates and forecasts of financial and performance metrics, projections of market opportunity and market share, potential benefits and the commercial attractiveness to our customers of our products and services, the potential success of our marketing and expansion strategies, the potential for us to achieve design awards and potential benefits of the Business Combination (including with respect to shareholder value). These statements are based on various assumptions, whether or not identified in this prospectus, and on the current expectations of our management and are not predictions of actual performance. These forward-looking statements are provided for illustrative purposes only and are not intended to serve as, and must not be relied on by any investor as, a guarantee, an assurance, a prediction or a definitive statement of fact or probability. Actual events and circumstances are difficult or impossible to predict and will differ from assumptions. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including:

•        the conditions affecting the markets in which we operate;

•        the success of our strategic relationships, including with our Tier 1 partners, none of which are exclusive;

•        fluctuations in sales of our major customers;

•        fluctuations in capital spending in the Automotive and Smart Infrastructure markets;

•        the impact of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic on the global economy and financial markets, including any restrictions on our operations and the operations of our customers and suppliers resulting from public health requirements and government mandates;

•        changes in applicable laws or regulations;

•        the possibility that our business may be adversely affected by other economic, business and/or competitive factors;

•        the risk that current trends in the Automotive and Smart Infrastructure markets decelerate or do not continue;

•        estimates for the financial performance of our business may prove to be incorrect or materially different from actual results;

•        failure to realize the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination;

•        risks relating to the uncertainty of the projected financial and operating information, including whether we will be able to achieve our target milestones, our pricing and sales volume targets, and our proposed production timelines and win the engagements contemplated in our projected pipeline, and the ability of original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) and other strategic partners to re-source or cancel vehicle or technology programs;

•        risks related to future market adoption of our offerings;

•        the final terms of our arrangement with our Tier 1 partner and, in turn, our Tier 1 partner’s award with OEM-B differing from our expectations, including with respect to volume and timing, or the arrangement can be terminated or may not materialize into a long-term contract partnership arrangement;

•        risks related to our marketing and growth strategies;

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•        the effects of competition on our future business;

•        our ability to issue equity or equity-linked securities in the future;

•        expectations with respect to future operating and financial performance and growth, including when we will generate positive cash flow from operations;

•        our ability to raise funding on reasonable terms as necessary to develop our products in the timeframe contemplated by our business plan, and to comply with the terms of any restrictive, financial or other covenants included in the agreements governing such funding;

•        our ability to execute our business plans and strategy;

•        the outcome of any legal proceedings that may be instituted against us related to Business Combination; and

•        other risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus, including those under the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

If any of these risks materialize or any of our assumptions prove incorrect, actual results could differ materially from the results implied by these forward-looking statements. There may be additional risks that we presently do not know or that we currently believe are immaterial that could also cause actual results to differ from those contained in the forward-looking statements. In addition, forward-looking statements reflect our expectations, plans or forecasts of future events and views as of the date of this prospectus. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our assessments to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so. These forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our assessment as of any date subsequent to the date of this prospectus. Accordingly, undue reliance should not be placed upon the forward-looking statements. Actual results, performance or achievements may, and are likely to, differ materially, and potentially adversely, from any projections and forward-looking statements and the assumptions on which those forward-looking statements were based. There can be no assurance that the data contained herein is reflective of future performance to any degree. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a predictor of future performance as projected financial information and other information are based on estimates and assumptions that are inherently subject to various significant risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.

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SUMMARY OF THE PROSPECTUS

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that is important to you in making an investment decision. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information included in this prospectus. Before making your investment decision with respect to our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the information under “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information and Other Data” and the financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

The Company

Founded in 2016 and led by Chief Executive Officer, Dr. Jun Pei and Chief Technology Officer, Dr. Mark McCord. Cepton is focused on the mass market commercialization of high performance, high quality lidar solutions and has been awarded the largest known advanced driver assistance systems (“ADAS”) lidar series production award in the industry to date, based on number of vehicle models awarded, by OEM-B (as defined below). Cepton’s lidar solutions offer high performance and auto-grade reliability at competitive prices for a range of markets, such as Automotive and Smart Infrastructure. Cepton’s patented Micro Motion Technology (“MMT®”)-based lidar technology enables reliable, high performance, low power, and compact solutions that deliver long range, high resolution 3D perception for smart applications. Cepton is headquartered in San Jose, California, with a sales and marketing presence in North America, Europe, Japan, India and China, to serve a fast-growing global customer base.

The mailing address of Cepton’s principal executive office is 399 West Trimble Road, San Jose, California 95131, and its telephone number is (408) 459-7579.

For more information about Cepton, see the sections entitled “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation.

Emerging Growth Company

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As such, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the prices of our securities may be more volatile.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of: (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) ending December 31, 2026, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of the prior fiscal year’s second fiscal quarter; and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. References herein to “emerging growth company” shall have the meaning associated with it in the JOBS Act.

Smaller Reporting Company

Additionally, we are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Smaller reporting companies may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure obligations, including, among other things, providing only two years of audited financial statements. We will remain a smaller reporting company until the last day of the fiscal year in which (i) the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $250 million as of the prior June 30, or (ii) our annual revenues exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year and the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30.

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Risk Factors Summary

You should consider all the information contained in this prospectus before making a decision to invest in our common stock or warrants. In particular, you should consider the risk factors described under “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10. Such risks include, but are not limited to, the following risks:

Risks Related to This Offering

•        Due to the significant number of shares of our common stock that were redeemed in connection with the Business Combination, the number of shares of common stock that the Selling Securityholders can sell into the public markets pursuant to this prospectus may exceed our public float. As a result, the resale of shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus could have a significant negative impact on the trading price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

•        We are an early stage company with a history of losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

•        Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.

•        Our forecasts and projections are based upon assumptions, analyses and internal estimates developed by our management. If these assumptions, analyses or estimates prove to be incorrect or inaccurate, our actual operating results may differ materially from those forecasted or projected.

•        We continue to implement strategic initiatives designed to grow our business. These initiatives may prove more costly than we currently anticipate and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue in an amount sufficient to offset the costs of these initiatives and to achieve and maintain profitability.

•        If our lidar products are not selected for inclusion in ADAS and autonomous driving systems by automotive OEMs, automotive tier 1 suppliers, mobility or technology companies or their respective suppliers, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

•        Continued pricing pressures, automotive OEM cost reduction initiatives and the ability of automotive OEMs to re-source or cancel vehicle or technology programs may result in losses or lower than anticipated margins, which will adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

•        Although we believe that lidar is likely to become an essential sensor for autonomous vehicles and other emerging markets, market adoption of lidar is uncertain. If market adoption of lidar does not continue to develop, or develops more slowly than we expect, our business will be adversely affected.

•        We are substantially dependent on our series production award from OEM-B and our relationship with Koito, and our business and prospects will be materially and adversely affected if OEM-B’s development or launch plans for the multiple vehicle models in which our products are expected to be deployed are significantly scaled back or terminated.

•        We rely on third-party suppliers and because some of the raw materials and key components in our products come from limited or single-source suppliers, we are susceptible to supply shortages, long lead times for components, and supply changes, any of which could disrupt our supply chain and could delay deliveries of our products to customers.

•        Because our sales have been primarily to customers engaged in development of ADAS deployments in consumer vehicles and pilot projects in the Smart Infrastructure segment and our orders are project-based, we expect our results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis.

•        Even though many of the components in our lidars are modular and can be built using readily available materials, we, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers may rely on complex machinery for our production,

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which involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs. We, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers may also rely on highly-skilled labor for our production, and if such highly-skilled labor is unavailable, our business could be adversely affected.

•        The average selling prices of our products could decrease rapidly over the life of the product, which may negatively affect our revenue and gross margin. In addition, the selling prices we are able to ultimately charge in the future for the products we are currently developing or commercializing may be less than what we currently project, which may cause our actual operating results to differ materially from our projections.

•        The discontinuation, lack of commercial success, or loss of business with respect to a particular vehicle model or other customer solution for which we are a significant supplier to, could reduce our sales and adversely affect our profitability.

•        We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If our remediation of this material weakness is not effective, or if we experience additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls in the future, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

Legal and Regulatory Risks Related to Our Business

•        We are subject to governmental export and import control laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

•        We are subject to, and must remain in compliance with, numerous laws and governmental regulations across various jurisdictions concerning the manufacturing, use, distribution and sale of our products. Some of our customers also require that we comply with their own unique requirements relating to these matters. These could impose substantial costs upon us and materially impact our ability to fulfil certain business opportunities.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

•        Despite the actions we are taking to defend and protect our intellectual property, we may not be able to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions. Our efforts to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights and prevent third parties from violating our rights may be costly.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Shares and Warrants

•        The Amended and Restated Charter requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name against our respective directors, officers, other employees or stockholders for breach of fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware, which may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders.

•        Anti-takeover provisions contained in the Amended and Restated Charter and the Bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

•        Claims for indemnification by our directors and officers may reduce our available funds to satisfy successful third-party claims against us and may reduce the amount of money available to us.

•        Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for the common stock to decline.

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THE OFFERING

Issuer

 

Cepton, Inc.

Resale of common stock

   

Securities offered by the Selling
Securityholders

 


We are registering the resale by the Selling Securityholders named in this prospectus, or their permitted transferees, of an aggregate of 138,431,899 shares of common stock, 5,175,000 warrants to purchase shares of common stock and 5,175,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants, which includes up to:

   

•   122,903,551 Consideration Shares;

   

•   5,265,848 Option Shares;

   

•   5,950,000 PIPE Shares;

   

•   4,312,500 Founder Shares;

   

•   5,175,000 Private Placement Warrants; and

   

•   5,175,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Private Placement Warrants.

Use of proceeds

 

We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the common stock or warrants by the Selling Securityholders. See “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.

Issuance of common stock

   

Shares of common stock offered by us

 

8,625,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Public Warrants and 5,175,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Private Placement Warrants.

Common stock issued and outstanding immediately after this offering

 


On a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination and the other transactions contemplated thereby:

•   154,048,001 shares of common stock prior to the exercise of the Private Placement Warrants and Public Warrants; and

   

•   167,848,001 shares of common stock assuming the issuance of 13,800,000 shares of common stock upon the exercise of the Private Placement Warrants and the Public Warrants.

Use of proceeds

 

We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $158.7 million from the exercise of the Public Warrants and the Private Placement Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds, if any, from the exercise of the Warrants for working capital and general corporate purposes. Because the exercise price of the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants substantially exceeds the current trading price of our common stock, we are unlikely to receive any proceeds from the exercise of our warrants in the near future, if at all. See “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.

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Lock-Up Restrictions

 

Certain of our stockholders are subject to lock-up agreements that restrict, subject to certain exceptions, transfer of shares of our common stock and other securities exercisable, exchangeable or convertible into shares of common stock. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions — Related Agreements — Confidentiality and Lock-Up Agreement” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions — Related Agreements — Unpaid Expenses and Lock-Up Agreement.”

Nasdaq ticker symbols

 

Our common stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “CPTN” and “CPTNW,” respectively.

Risk factors

 

Any investment in the securities offered hereby is speculative and involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.

The resale of shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus could have a significant negative impact on the trading price of our common stock. This impact may be heighted by the fact that certain of the Selling Securityholders purchased, or are able to purchase, shares of our common stock at prices that are well below the current trading price of our common stock.

Unless we specifically state otherwise or the context otherwise requires, the information above is as of the Closing Date, does not give effect to issuances of our common stock, warrants or options to purchase shares of our common stock, or the exercise of warrants or options after such date, and excludes:

•        15,123,142 shares initially reserved under the Cepton, Inc. 2022 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2022 Plan”);

•        3,080,960 shares initially reserved under the Cepton, Inc. Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”);

•        13,000,000 Earnout Shares;

•        13,800,000 Warrant Shares;

•        150,000 shares of common stock (together with the 50,000 shares previously issued, the “Commitment Shares”) issuable as consideration in connection with the Purchase Agreement, dated as of November 24, 2021(the “Purchase Agreement”), by and among GCAC, Legacy Cepton and Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (“Lincoln Park”) and up to $100.0 million of shares of common stock we may sell to Lincoln Park pursuant to the Purchase Agreement; and

•        15,843,989 shares underlying outstanding options (includes unissued Option Shares).

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in our securities involves risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information included in this prospectus, including matters addressed in the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statement.” Please see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus. These risk factors are not exhaustive, and investors are encouraged to perform their own investigation with respect to our business, financial condition and prospects. We may face additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, which may also impair our business or financial condition. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information and Other Data,” the financial statements and notes to the financial statements included herein.

Due to the significant number of shares of our common stock that were redeemed in connection with the Business Combination, the number of shares of common stock that the Selling Securityholders can sell into the public markets pursuant to this prospectus may exceed our public float. As a result, the resale of shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus could have a significant negative impact on the trading price of our common stock.

Due to the significant number of shares of our common stock that were redeemed in connection with the Business Combination, the number of shares of common stock that the Selling Securityholders can sell into the public markets pursuant to this prospectus may exceed our public float. As a result, the resale of shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus could have a significant negative impact on the trading price of our common stock. This impact may be heighted by the fact that, as described in the table below, certain of the Selling Securityholders purchased, or are able to purchase, shares of our common stock at prices that are well below the current trading price of our common stock. The 152,231,899 shares that may be resold and/or issued into the public markets pursuant to this prospectus represent approximately 88% of the shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2022 (after giving effect to the issuance of the Option Shares, Public Warrant Shares and Private Warrant Shares).

Security

 

Purchase price

 

% of shares/warrants
outstanding

 

Potential profit
per share

Consideration Shares
(122,903,551 shares)

 

Acquired by employees, investors and others through private placements, equity award grants and other sales of Cepton Technologies, Inc. equity securities at prices that equate to purchase prices of less than $10.00 per share of common stock, and, in some cases, including equity securities purchased in connection with or following the founding of Cepton Technologies, Inc., purchase prices of approximately $0.01 per share of common stock

 

Approximately 80%

 

Up to $3.87 per share

Option Shares
(5,265,848 shares)

 

Prices ranging from $0.10 to $5.34 per share of common stock

 

Approximately 3% (after giving effect to the issuance of the Option Shares)

 

Up to $3.78 per share

PIPE Shares
(5,950,000 shares)

 

$10.00 per share of common stock

 

Approximately 4%

 

N/A

Founders Shares
(4,312,500 shares)

 

Approximately $0.006 per share of common stock

 

Approximately 3%

 

Up to $3.77 per share

Private Placement Warrants
(5,175,000 warrants)

 

$1.00 per Private Placement Warrant

 

Approximately 38%

 

N/A

Calculations based on (i) 154,048,001 shares of common stock and 13,800,000 warrants outstanding, in each case as of March 31, 2022 and (ii) sales of shares of common stock at a price of $3.88 per share and sales of warrants at a price of $0.49 per warrant, which reflect the closing price of the common stock and warrants as of March 31, 2022. Unless otherwise noted, assumes no issuance of Option Shares, Private Warrant Shares or Public Warrant Shares.

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The Selling Securityholders will determine the timing, pricing and rate at which they sell such shares into the public market. Although the current trading price or our common stock is significantly below $10.00 per share, which was the sales price for units in the Growth Capital Acquisition Corp. initial public offering, as shown in the table above, certain of the Selling Securityholders have an incentive to sell because they purchased shares and/or warrants at prices below the initial public offering price and/or below the recent trading prices of our securities. Sales by such investors may prevent the trading price of our securities from exceeding the initial public offering price and may cause the trading prices of our securities to experience a further decline.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We are an early stage company with a history of losses and expects to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

We have incurred net losses on an annual basis since our inception. We incurred a net loss of approximately $19.6 million and $37.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2021, respectively. We believe that we will continue to incur operating and net losses each quarter until at least the first quarter of 2024. Even if we are able to successfully develop and sell our lidar solutions, there can be no assurance that we will be commercially successful. Our potential profitability is dependent upon the successful development and successful commercial introduction and acceptance of our lidar solutions, which may not occur.

We expect the rate at which we will incur losses to be significantly higher in future periods as we:

•        expand our production capabilities to produce our lidar solutions, including costs associated with outsourcing the production of our lidar solutions;

•        expand our design, development, installation and servicing capabilities;

•        build up inventories of parts and components for our lidar solutions;

•        produce an inventory of our lidar solutions;

•        increase our sales and marketing activities and develop our distribution infrastructure; and

•        continue to utilize our third-party partners for manufacturing, testing and commercialization.

Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before we receive incremental revenues with respect thereto, our losses in future periods will be significant. In addition, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in revenues, which would further increase our losses.

Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.

We have been focused on developing lidar products and perception software for mass-market ADAS and autonomous driving systems and Smart Infrastructure since 2016. This relatively limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter. Risks and challenges we have faced or expect to face include, but are not limited to, our ability to:

•        develop and commercialize our products;

•        produce and deliver lidar and software products of acceptable performance;

•        forecast our revenue and budget for and manage our expenses;

•        attract new customers, retain existing customers and expand existing commercial relationships;

•        comply with existing and new or modified laws and regulations applicable to our business;

•        plan for and manage capital expenditures for our current and future products, and manage our supply chain and supplier relationships related to our current and future products;

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•        anticipate and respond to macroeconomic changes and changes in the markets in which we operate;

•        maintain and enhance the value of our reputation and brand;

•        effectively manage our growth and business operations, including the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business;

•        develop and protect intellectual property;

•        hire, integrate and retain talented people at all levels of our organization; and

•        successfully develop new solutions to enhance the experience of customers.

If we fail to address the risks and difficulties that we face, including those associated with the challenges listed above as well as those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Further, because we have limited historical financial data and operate in a rapidly evolving market, any predictions about our future revenue and expenses may not be as accurate as they would be if we had a longer operating history or operated in a more predictable market. We have encountered in the past, and will encounter in the future, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies with limited operating histories in rapidly changing industries. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan and operate our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our forecasts and projections are based upon assumptions, analyses and internal estimates developed by our management. If these assumptions, analyses or estimates prove to be incorrect or inaccurate, our actual operating results may differ materially from those forecasted or projected.

Our forecasts and projections included in this prospectus are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions, analyses and internal estimates developed by our management, any or all of which may not prove to be correct or accurate. If these assumptions, analyses or estimates prove to be incorrect or inaccurate, our actual operating results may differ materially from those forecasted or projected.

The forecasts and projections in this prospectus include forecasts and estimates relating to the expected size and growth of the markets for which we operate or seek to enter. Such markets may not develop or grow, or may develop and grow at a lower rate than expected, and even if these markets experience the forecasted growth described in this prospectus, we may not grow our business at similar rates, or at all. Our future growth is subject to many factors, including, among others, our ability to develop and commercialize our products and the market’s adoption of our products, both of which are subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, the forecasts and estimates of market size and growth described in this prospectus should not be taken as indicative of our future growth. In addition, these forecasts do not take into account the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic, and we cannot assure you that these forecasts will not be materially and adversely affected as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We continue to implement strategic initiatives designed to grow our business. These initiatives may prove more costly than we currently anticipate and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue in an amount sufficient to offset the costs of these initiatives and to achieve and maintain profitability.

We continue to make investments and implement initiatives designed to grow our business, including:

•        expanding our sales and marketing efforts to attract new customers in our target end markets;

•        investing in R&D;

•        investing in new applications and markets for our products by expanding relationships with existing customers and creating opportunities for new customers;

•        further enhancing our partnerships with third-parties to develop manufacturing processes; and

•        investing in legal, accounting, and other administrative functions necessary to support our operations as a public company.

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These initiatives may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue, if at all, in an amount sufficient to offset these higher expenses and to achieve and maintain profitability. The market opportunities we are pursuing are at various stages of development, and it may be many years before the end markets we expect to serve in the Automotive market generate demand for our products at scale, if at all. In the Smart Infrastructure market, we have a number of active projects and multiple developing engagement opportunities, but some of these relationships and market opportunities are also still in the early stages of development. Our revenue may be adversely affected for a number of reasons, including, but not limited to (i) the development and/or market acceptance of new technology that competes with our lidar products and automotive software, (ii) if certain automotive OEMs, or other market participants change their autonomous vehicle technology, (iii) failure of our customers to commercialize autonomous systems that include our solutions, (iv) our inability to effectively manage our inventory or manufacture products at scale, (v) our inability to enter new markets or help our customers adapt our products for new applications or (vi) our failure to attract new customers or expand orders from existing customers or increasing competition. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict the size and growth rate of our target markets, customer demand for our products, commercialization timelines, developments in autonomous sensing and related technology, the entry of competitive products, or the success of existing competitive products and services. For these reasons, we do not expect to achieve profitability over the near term. If our revenue does not grow over the long term, our ability to achieve and maintain profitability may be adversely affected, and the value of our business may significantly decrease.

Our ability to effectively manage our anticipated growth and expansion of operations will also require us to enhance our operational, financial and management controls and infrastructure, human resources policies and reporting systems. These enhancements and improvements will require significant capital expenditures, investments in additional headcount and other operating expenditures and allocation of valuable management and employee resources. Our future financial performance and ability to execute on our business plan will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth and expansion. There are no guarantees that we will be able to do so in an efficient or timely manner, or at all.

If our lidar products are not selected for inclusion in ADAS and autonomous driving systems by automotive OEMs, automotive tier 1 companies, mobility or technology companies or their respective suppliers, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

Automotive OEMs, tier 1 suppliers to automotive OEMs, mobility or technology companies, and their respective suppliers design and develop autonomous driving and ADAS technology over several years. These automotive OEMs, tier 1 suppliers, mobility or technology companies, and their respective suppliers undertake extensive testing or qualification processes prior to selecting a product such as our lidar products for use in a particular system, product or vehicle model, because such products will function as part of a larger system or platform and must meet certain other specifications. We spend significant time and resources to have our products selected by our customers and their suppliers for use in a particular system, product or vehicle model, which is known as a “series production win” or a “series production award.” In the case of autonomous driving and ADAS technology, a series production award means our lidar product has been selected for use in a particular vehicle model. However, if we do not achieve a series production award with respect to a particular vehicle model, we may not have an opportunity to supply our products to the automotive OEM for that vehicle model for a period of many years. In many cases, this period can be as long as five to seven or more years. If our products are not selected by an automotive OEM or our suppliers for one vehicle model or if our products are not successful in that vehicle model, it is unlikely that our product will be deployed in other vehicle models of that OEM. If we fail to win a significant number of vehicle models from one or more of automotive OEMs or their suppliers, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected. For more information about certain risks related to product selection, please see the risk factor in this prospectus captioned “The period of time from engagement to a series production award and then to implementation is long, typically spanning over several years, especially in the Automotive market, and our customer arrangements are subject to cancellation or postponement of contracts or unsuccessful implementation.”

We are reliant on key inputs and our inability to reduce and control the cost of such inputs could negatively impact the adoption of our products and our profitability.

The production of our sensors is dependent on producing or sourcing certain key components and raw materials at acceptable price levels. If we are unable to adequately reduce and control the costs of such key components, we will be unable to realize manufacturing costs targets, which could reduce the market adoption of our products, damage our reputation with current or prospective customers, and harm our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

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Continued pricing pressures, automotive OEM cost reduction initiatives and the ability of automotive OEMs to re-source or cancel vehicle or technology programs may result in losses or lower than anticipated margins, which will adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Cost-cutting initiatives adopted by our customers often result in increased downward pressure on pricing. We expect that over the course of the terms of our arrangements with automotive OEMs, our customers may require step-downs in pricing. Automotive OEMs possess significant leverage over their suppliers, including us, because the automotive component supply industry is highly competitive, serves a limited number of customers and has a high fixed cost base. For example, our long-range lidars are currently in the low $1,000s range and, over the next five to six years, we expect that these prices could drop to the $500-600 range. For near-range lidars, we expect high volume ADAS target pricing to be in the $100 range within a few years. Accordingly, we expect to be subject to substantial continuing pressure from automotive OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers to reduce the price of our products. It is possible that pricing pressures beyond our expectations could intensify as automotive OEMs pursue restructuring, consolidation and cost-cutting initiatives. If we are unable to generate sufficient production cost savings in the future to offset price reductions, our gross margin and profitability would be adversely affected.

We expect to incur substantial R&D costs and devote significant resources to identifying and commercializing new products, which could significantly reduce our profitability and may never result in revenue to us.

Our future growth depends on penetrating new markets, adapting existing products to new applications and customer requirements, and introducing new products that achieve market acceptance. Our plans to incur substantial, and potentially increasing, R&D costs as part of our efforts to design, develop, manufacture and commercialize new products and enhance existing products. Our R&D expenses were approximately $11.7 million and $24.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively, and are likely to grow in the future. Because we account for R&D as an operating expense, these expenditures will adversely affect our results of operations in the future. Further, our R&D program may not produce successful results, and our new products may not achieve market acceptance, create additional revenue or become profitable.

Although we believe that lidar is likely to become an essential sensor for autonomous vehicles and other emerging markets, market adoption of lidar is uncertain. If market adoption of lidar does not continue to develop, or develops more slowly than we expect, our business will be adversely affected.

While our lidar solutions can be applied to different use cases across end markets, a significant portion of our revenue is currently primarily generated from product sales of lidar sensors to direct customers. Despite the fact that the automotive industry has engaged in considerable effort to research and test lidar products for ADAS and autonomous driving applications, the automotive industry may not introduce lidar products in commercially available vehicles. However, lidar products remain relatively new and it is possible that other sensing modalities, or a new disruptive modality based on new or existing technology, including a combination of technology, will achieve acceptance or leadership in the ADAS and autonomous driving industries. Even if lidar products are used in initial generations of autonomous driving technology and certain ADAS applications, we cannot guarantee that lidar products will be designed into or included in subsequent generations of such commercialized technology. In addition, we expect that initial generations of autonomous vehicles will be focused on limited applications, such as robotaxis and delivery vehicles, and that mass market adoption of autonomous technology may lag behind these initial applications significantly. The speed of market growth for ADAS or autonomous vehicles is difficult if not impossible to predict, and it is more difficult to predict this market’s future growth in light of the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although we currently believe we are a leader in lidar-based systems for the ADAS market, by the time mass market adoption of ADAS and autonomous vehicle technology is achieved, we expect competition among providers of sensing technology based on lidar and other modalities to increase substantially. If commercialization of lidar products is not successful, or not as successful as we or the market expects, or if other sensing modalities gain acceptance by developers of ADAS or autonomous driving systems, automotive OEMs, regulators and safety organizations or other market participants by the time autonomous vehicle technology achieves mass market adoption, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.

We are investing in and pursuing market opportunities outside of the Automotive markets, including in the Smart Infrastructure market. We believe that our future revenue growth, if any, will depend in part on our ability to expand within new markets such as these and to enter new markets as they emerge. Each of these markets presents distinct risks and, in many cases, requires us to address the particular requirements of that market.

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Addressing these requirements can be time-consuming and costly. The market for lidar technology outside of automotive applications is relatively new, rapidly developing and unproven in many markets or industries. Many of our customers outside of the automotive industry are still in the testing and development phases and we cannot be certain that they will commercialize products or systems with our lidar products or at all. We cannot be certain that lidar will be sold into these markets, or any market outside of Automotive market, at scale. Adoption of lidar products, including our products, outside of the automotive industry will depend on numerous factors, including: whether the technological capabilities of lidar and lidar-based products meet users’ current or anticipated needs, whether the benefits of designing lidar into larger sensing systems outweigh the costs, complexity and time needed to deploy such technology or replace or modify existing systems that may have used other modalities such as cameras and radar, whether users in other applications can move beyond the testing and development phases and proceed to commercializing systems supported by lidar technology and whether lidar developers such as us can keep pace with rapid technological change in certain developing markets and the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the length of any associated work stoppages. If lidar technology does not achieve commercial success outside of the automotive industry, or if the market develops at a pace slower than we expect, our business, results of operation and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.

We are substantially dependent on our series production award from OEM-B and our relationship with Koito, and our business and prospects will be materially and adversely affected if OEM-B’s development or launch plans for the multiple vehicle models in which our products are expected to be deployed are significantly scaled back or terminated.

Our growth plans are substantially dependent on our series production award from OEM-B. We are the supplier of lidar to OEM-B’s next generation ADAS program, through Koito. Sales to Koito accounted for over 68% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2021. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our relationship with OEM-B or Koito and secure orders from Koito for OEM-B programs. If OEM-B terminates or significantly alters or delays its next generation ADAS program and/or alters its relationship with us or with Koito in a manner that is adverse to us, our business would be materially adversely affected. Similarly, if we are unable to maintain our relationship with Koito, or the terms of our arrangement with Koito with respect to the OEM-B series production award differ from our expectations, including with respect to volume, pricing and timing, then our business and prospects would be materially adversely affected.

The period of time from engagement to a series production award and then to implementation is long, typically spanning over several years, especially in the Automotive market, and our customer arrangements are subject to cancellation or postponement of contracts or unsuccessful implementation.

Our customers generally must make significant commitments of resources to test and validate our products and confirm that they can integrate with other technologies before including them in any particular system, product or vehicle model. We, in turn, spends significant time and resources to have our products selected by our customers and their suppliers for use in a particular system, product or vehicle model, which is known as a series production award. The development cycles of our products with new customers varies widely depending on the application, market, customer and the complexity of the product. In the Automotive market, this development cycle can be five to seven years, including the period from series production award to production, which can be three to four years. In the Smart Infrastructure market, this development cycle can be one to two years. Further, even after obtaining a series production award with a customer, we are subject to the risk that such customer cancels or postpones implementation of our technology, as well as that we will not be able to integrate our technology successfully into a larger system with other sensing modalities. Further, our revenue could be less than forecasted if the system, product or vehicle model that includes our lidar products is unsuccessful, including for reasons unrelated to our technology. Long development cycles and product cancellations or postponements may adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

We may experience difficulties in managing our growth and expanding our operations.

We expect to experience significant growth in the scope and nature of our operations. Our ability to manage our operations and future growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, compliance programs and reporting systems. We are currently in the process of strengthening our compliance programs, including our compliance programs related to export controls, privacy and cybersecurity and anti-corruption.

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We may not be able to implement improvements in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing controls, programs, systems and procedures, which could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation and financial results.

We rely on third-party suppliers and, because some of the raw materials and key components in our products come from limited or single-source suppliers, we are susceptible to supply shortages, long lead times for components, and supply changes, any of which could disrupt our supply chain and could delay deliveries of our products to customers.

While the components that go into the manufacture of our solutions are generally built from modular, commonly available materials, they are sourced from third-party suppliers. To date, we have produced our products in relatively limited quantities. Although we have limited experience in managing our supply chain to manufacture and deliver our products at scale, our future success will depend on our ability to manage our supply chain to manufacture and deliver our products at scale. Some of the key components used to manufacture our products come from limited or single source suppliers. We are therefore subject to the risk of shortages and long lead times in the supply of these components and the risk that our suppliers discontinue or modify components used in our products. We have a global supply chain and the COVID-19 pandemic and other health epidemics and outbreaks have and may in the future adversely affect our ability to source components in a timely or cost effective manner from our third-party suppliers due to, among other things, work stoppages or interruptions. For example, some of our key suppliers were affected by the pandemic resulting in supply chain disruptions. These issues further delayed order fulfillment and revenue recognition but were largely resolved in the third quarter of 2020. Additionally, our MMT®-based lidar uses laser diodes. Any shortage of these laser diodes could materially and adversely affect our ability to manufacture our solutions. In addition, the lead times associated with certain components are lengthy and preclude rapid changes in quantities and delivery schedules. We may in the future experience component shortages and price fluctuations of certain key components and materials, and the predictability of the availability and pricing of these components may be limited. Component shortages or pricing fluctuations could be material in the future. In the event of a component shortage, supply interruption or material pricing change from suppliers of these components, we may not be able to develop alternate sources in a timely manner or at all in the case of sole or limited sources. Developing alternate sources of supply for these components may be time-consuming, difficult, and costly and we may not be able to source these components on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, which may undermine our ability to meet our requirements or to fill customer orders in a timely manner. Any interruption or delay in the supply of any of these parts or components, or the inability to obtain these parts or components from alternate sources at acceptable prices and within a reasonable amount of time, would adversely affect our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries to our customers. This could adversely affect our relationships with our customers and channel partners and could cause delays in shipment of our products and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, increased component costs could result in lower gross margins. Even where we are able to pass increased component costs along to our customers, there may be a lapse of time before we are able to do so such that we must absorb the increased cost. If we are unable to buy these components in quantities sufficient to meet our requirements on a timely basis, we will not be able to deliver products to our customers, which may result in such customers using competitive products instead of ours.

Because our sales have been primarily to customers engaged in development of ADAS deployments in consumer vehicles and pilot projects in the Smart Infrastructure segment and ours orders are project-based, we expect our results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis.

Our quarterly results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may vary significantly in the future. As such, historical comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. In particular, because our sales to date have primarily been to customers making purchases for development of ADAS deployments in consumer vehicles, sales in any given quarter can fluctuate based on the timing and success of our customers’ projects. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. These fluctuations could adversely affect our ability to meet our expectations or those of securities analysts, ratings agencies or investors. If we do not meet these expectations for any period, the value of our business and our securities could decline significantly. Factors that may cause these quarterly fluctuations include, but are not limited to, those listed below:

•        the timing and magnitude of orders and shipments of our products in any quarter;

•        the timing and magnitude of sales returns and warranty claims of our products in any quarter;

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•        the timing and magnitude of non-recurring engineering services revenue in any quarter;

•        pricing changes we may adopt to drive market adoption or in response to competitive pressure;

•        the ability to retain our existing customers and attract new customers;

•        the ability to develop, introduce, manufacture and ship in a timely manner products that meet customer requirements;

•        disruptions in our sales channels or termination of our relationship with important channel partners;

•        delays in customers’ purchasing cycles or deferments of customers’ purchases in anticipation of new products or updates from us or our competitors;

•        fluctuations in demand pressures for our products;

•        the mix of products sold in any quarter;

•        the duration of COVID-19 and the time it takes for economic recovery;

•        the timing and rate of broader market adoption of autonomous systems utilizing our solutions across the automotive and other market sectors;

•        market acceptance of lidar and further technological advancements by our competitors and other market participants;

•        the ability of our customers to commercialize systems that incorporate our products;

•        any change in the competitive dynamics of our markets, including consolidation of competitors, regulatory developments and new market entrants;

•        the ability to effectively manage our inventory;

•        changes in the source, cost, availability of and regulations pertaining to materials we use;

•        adverse litigation, judgments, settlements or other litigation-related costs, or claims that may give rise to such costs; and

•        general economic, industry and market conditions, including trade disputes.

Our transition to an outsourced manufacturing business model may not be successful, which could harm our ability to deliver products and recognize revenue.

We are transitioning from a manufacturing model in which we primarily manufactured and assembled our products at our San Jose, California location, to one where we rely on third-party manufacturers and tier 1 partners in Japan and potentially other foreign and domestic locations. We currently have an agreement with one such manufacturer of key components and is in negotiations with other third parties to provide contract manufacturing of certain of our products. As we transition manufacturing to third-party manufacturers and tier 1 partners, we plan to maintain certain levels of in-house manufacturing capabilities for new product introduction, prototyping, and small quantity order fulfillment. We believe the use of third-party manufacturers and tier 1 partners will have benefits, but in the near term, while we begin manufacturing with new partners, we may lose revenue, incur increased costs and potentially harm our customer relationships.

Reliance on third-party manufacturers reduces our control over the manufacturing process, including reduced control over quality, product costs and product supply and timing. We may experience delays in shipments or issues concerning product quality from our third-party manufacturers. If any of our third-party manufacturers experience interruptions, delays or disruptions in supplying our products, including by natural disasters, COVID-19, other health epidemics and outbreaks, or work stoppages or capacity constraints, our ability to ship products to distributors and customers would be delayed. In addition, unfavorable economic conditions could result in financial distress among third-party manufacturers upon which we rely, thereby increasing the risk of disruption of supplies necessary to fulfill our production requirements and meet customer demands. Additionally, if any of our third-party manufacturers experience quality control problems in their manufacturing operations and our products do not meet customer or

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regulatory requirements, it could be required to cover the cost of repair or replacement of any defective products. These delays or product quality issues could have an immediate and material adverse effect on our ability to fulfill orders and could have a negative effect on our operating results. In addition, such delays or issues with product quality could adversely affect our reputation and our relationship with our channel partners. If third-party manufacturers experience financial, operational, manufacturing capacity or other difficulties, or experience shortages in required components, or if they are otherwise unable or unwilling to continue to manufacture our products in required volumes or at all, our supply may be disrupted, we may be required to seek alternate manufacturers and we may be required to re-design our products. It would be time-consuming, and could be costly and impracticable, to begin to use new manufacturers and designs, and such changes could cause significant interruptions in supply and could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries and may subsequently lead to the loss of sales. While we take measures to protect our trade secrets, the use of third-party manufacturers may also risk disclosure of our innovative and proprietary manufacturing methodologies, which could adversely affect our business.

If we further expand our international manufacturing operations, we may face risks associated with manufacturing operations outside the United States.

We expect to maintain manufacturing at our headquarters in San Jose, California for product development and small amounts of fulfillment. If we were to begin manufacturing on our own outside the United States, such activity would be subject to several inherent risks, including:

•        foreign currency fluctuations;

•        local economic conditions;

•        political instability;

•        import or export requirements;

•        failure by us, our collaborators or our distributors to obtain regulatory clearance, authorization or approval for the use of our products and services in various countries;

•        foreign government regulatory requirements;

•        reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

•        regulatory and compliance risks that relate to maintaining accurate information and control over sales and distributors’ activities that may fall within the purview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”), our books and records provisions, or our anti-bribery provisions or laws similar to the FCPA in other jurisdictions in which we may in the future operate, such as the United Kingdom’s Bribery Act of 2010 and anti-bribery requirements of member states in the European Union;

•        tariffs and other trade barriers and restrictions; and

•        potentially adverse tax consequences.

If we further expand our limited manufacturing operations outside the United States, we may be subject to these risks. Such risks could increase our costs and decrease our profit margins.

Even though many of the components in our lidars are modular and can be built using readily available materials, we, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers may rely on complex machinery for our production, which involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs. we, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers may also rely on highly-skilled labor for our production, and if such highly-skilled labor is unavailable, our business could be adversely affected.

We, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers may rely on complex machinery for the production, assembly and installation of our lidar solutions, which will involve a significant degree of uncertainty and risk in terms of operational performance and costs. Our production facilities and the facilities of our outsourcing partners and suppliers consist of large-scale machinery combining many components. These components may suffer unexpected malfunctions from time to time and will depend on repairs and spare parts to resume operations, which may not be available when needed. Unexpected malfunctions of these components may significantly affect the intended operational efficiency.

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In addition, we and our outsourcing partners and our suppliers may also rely on highly-skilled labor for our assembly and production. If such highly-skilled labor is unavailable, our business could be adversely affected. Operational performance and costs can be difficult to predict and are often influenced by factors outside of our control, such as, but not limited to, scarcity of natural resources, environmental hazards and remediation, costs associated with decommissioning of machines, labor disputes and strikes, difficulty or delays in obtaining governmental permits, damages or defects in electronic systems, industrial accidents, fire, seismic activity and natural disasters. Should operational risks materialize, it may result in the personal injury to or death of workers, the loss of production equipment, damage to production facilities, monetary losses, delays and unanticipated fluctuations in production, environmental damage, administrative fines, increased insurance costs and potential legal liabilities, all which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or operating results.

As part of growing our business, we may make acquisitions. If we fail to successfully select, execute or integrate our acquisitions, then our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

From time to time, we may undertake acquisitions to add new products and technologies, acquire talent, gain new sales channels or enter into new markets or sales territories. In addition to possible stockholder approval, we may need approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may disrupt our business strategy if we fail to do so. Furthermore, acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets, businesses, key personnel, customers, vendors and suppliers require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant.

To date, we have no experience with acquisitions and the integration of acquired technology and personnel. Failure to successfully identify, complete, manage and integrate acquisitions could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and could cause our stock price to decline.

Changes in our product mix may impact our financial performance.

Our financial performance can be affected by the mix of products we sell during a given period. If our sales include more of the lower gross margin products than higher gross margin products, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. There can be no guarantees that we will be able to successfully alter our product mix so that we are selling more of our high gross margin products. If actual results vary from this projected product mix of sales, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our sales and operations in international markets expose us to operational, financial and regulatory risks.

International sales comprise a significant amount of our overall revenue. Sales to international customers accounted for 84% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 65% of our revenue in 2020. We are committed to growing our international sales, and while we have committed resources to expanding our international operations and sales channels, these efforts may not be successful. International operations are subject to a number of other risks, including, but not limited to:

•        exchange rate fluctuations;

•        political and economic instability, international terrorism and anti-American sentiment, particularly in emerging markets;

•        global or regional health crises, such as COVID-19 or other health epidemics and outbreaks;

•        potential for violations of anti-corruption laws and regulations, such as those related to bribery and fraud;

•        preference for locally branded products, and laws and business practices favoring local competition;

•        increased difficulty in managing inventory;

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•        delayed revenue recognition;

•        less effective protection of intellectual property;

•        stringent regulation of the autonomous or other systems or products using our products and stringent consumer protection and product compliance regulations, including but not limited to General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union, European competition law, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive and the European Ecodesign Directive that are costly to comply with and may vary from country to country;

•        difficulties and costs of staffing and managing foreign operations;

•        import and export laws and the impact of tariffs;

•        changes in local tax and customs duty laws or changes in the enforcement, application or interpretation of such laws; and

•        U.S. government restrictions on certain technology transfer to certain countries of concern.

The occurrence of any of these risks could negatively affect our international business and consequently our business, operating results and financial condition.

The complexity of our products and the limited visibility into the various environmental and other conditions under which our customers use the products could result in unforeseen delays or expenses from undetected defects, errors or reliability issues in hardware or software which could reduce the market adoption of our new products, damage our reputation with current or prospective customers, expose us to product liability and other claims and adversely affect our operating costs.

Our products are highly technical and very complex and require high standards to manufacture and have in the past and will likely in the future experience defects, errors or reliability issues at various stages of development. We may be unable to timely release new products, manufacture existing products, correct problems that have arisen or correct such problems to our customers’ satisfaction. Additionally, undetected errors, defects or security vulnerabilities, especially as new products are introduced or as new versions are released, could result in serious injury to the end users of technology incorporating our products, or those in the surrounding area, our customers never being able to commercialize technology incorporating our products, litigation against us, negative publicity and other consequences. These risks are particularly prevalent in the highly competitive autonomous driving and ADAS markets. Some errors or defects in our products may only be discovered after they have been tested, commercialized and deployed by customers. If that is the case, we may incur significant additional development costs and product recall, repair or replacement costs. These problems may also result in claims, including class actions, against us by our customers or others. Our reputation or brand may be damaged as a result of these problems and customers may be reluctant to buy our products, which could adversely affect our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers and could adversely affect our financial results.

In addition, we could face material legal claims for breach of contract, product liability, fraud, tort or breach of warranty as a result of these problems. Defending a lawsuit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and may divert management’s attention and adversely affect the market’s perception of us and our products. In addition, our business liability insurance coverage could prove inadequate with respect to a claim and future coverage may be unavailable on acceptable terms or at all. These product-related issues could result in claims against us and our business could be adversely affected.

We may be subject to product liability or warranty claims that could result in significant direct or indirect costs, which could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our customers use our solutions in autonomous driving, ADAS and other automotive applications, which present the risk of significant injury, including fatalities. We may be subject to claims if a product using our lidar technology is involved in an accident and persons are injured or purport to be injured. Any insurance that we carry may not be sufficient or it may not apply to all situations. Similarly, our customers could be subjected to claims as a result of such accidents and bring legal claims against us to attempt to hold us liable. In addition, if lawmakers or governmental agencies were to determine that the use of our products or autonomous driving or certain ADAS applications increased

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the risk of injury to all or a subset of our customers, they may pass laws or adopt regulations that limit the use of our products or increase our liability associated with the use of our products or that regulate the use of or delay the deployment of autonomous driving and ADAS technology. Any of these events could adversely affect our brand, relationships with customers, operating results or financial condition.

We typically provide a limited-time warranty on our products. The occurrence of any material defects in our products could make us liable for damages and warranty claims. In addition, we could incur significant costs to correct any defects, warranty claims or other problems, including costs related to product recalls. Any negative publicity related to the perceived quality of our products could affect our brand image, partner and customer demand, and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Also, warranty, recall and product liability claims may result in litigation, including class actions, the occurrence of which could be costly, lengthy and distracting and adversely affect our business and operating results.

If we or our suppliers do not maintain sufficient inventory or if they do not adequately manage their respective inventory, we could lose sales or incur higher inventory-related expenses, which could negatively affect our operating results.

To ensure adequate inventory supply, we and our suppliers must forecast inventory needs and expenses, place orders sufficiently in advance with their respective suppliers and manufacturing partners and manufacture products based on our estimates of future demand for particular products. Fluctuations in the adoption of lidar products may affect our ability to forecast our future operating results, including revenue, gross margins, cash flows and profitability. Our ability to accurately forecast demand for our products could be affected by many factors, including the rapidly changing nature of the Automotive and Smart Infrastructure markets in which we operate, the uncertainty surrounding the market acceptance and commercialization of lidar technology, the emergence of new markets, an increase or decrease in customer demand for our products or for products and services of our competitors, product introductions by competitors, COVID-19, other health epidemics and outbreaks, and any associated work stoppages or interruptions, unanticipated changes in general market conditions and the weakening of economic conditions or consumer confidence in future economic conditions. If our lidar products are commercialized in industries that are quickly growing, including autonomous driving and ADAS applications, both of which are currently experiencing rapid growth in demand, we may face challenges acquiring adequate supplies to manufacture our products and/or we and our manufacturing partners may not be able to manufacture our products at a rate necessary to satisfy the levels of demand, which would negatively affect our revenue. This risk may be exacerbated by the fact that we may not carry or be able to obtain for our manufacturers a significant amount of inventory to satisfy short-term demand increases. If we fail to accurately forecast customer demand, we may experience excess inventory levels or a shortage of products available for sale.

Inventory levels in excess of customer demand may result in inventory write-downs or write-offs and the sale of excess inventory at discounted prices, which would adversely affect our financial results, including our gross margin, and have a negative effect on our brand. Conversely, if we underestimate customer demand for our products, we, or our manufacturing partners, may not be able to deliver products to meet our requirements, and this could result in damage to our brand and customer relationships and adversely affect our revenue and operating results.

The average selling prices of our products could decrease rapidly over the life of the product, which may negatively affect our revenue and gross margin. In addition, the selling prices we are able to ultimately charge in the future for the products we are currently developing or commercializing may be less than what we currently project, which may cause our actual operating results to differ materially from our projections.

We may experience declines in the average selling prices of our products generally as our customers seek to commercialize autonomous systems at prices low enough to achieve market acceptance. In order to sell products that have a falling average unit selling price and maintain margins at the same time, we will need to continually reduce product and manufacturing costs. To manage manufacturing costs, we must engineer the most cost-effective design for our products. In addition, we continuously drive initiatives to reduce labor cost, improve worker efficiency, reduce the cost of materials, use fewer materials and further lower overall product costs by carefully managing component prices, inventory and shipping cost. We also need to continually introduce new products with higher sales prices and gross margin in order to maintain our overall gross margin. If we are unable to manage the cost of older products or successfully introduce new products with higher gross margin, our revenue and overall gross margin would likely

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decline. In addition, the selling prices we are able to ultimately charge in the future for the products we are currently developing or commercializing may be less than what we currently project, which may cause our actual operating results to differ materially from our forecasts and projections.

Adverse conditions in the automotive industry or the global economy more generally could have adverse effects on our results of operations.

While we make our strategic planning decisions based on the assumption that the markets we are targeting will grow, our business is dependent, in large part on, and directly affected by, business cycles and other factors affecting the global automobile industry and global economy generally. Automotive production and sales are highly cyclical and depend on general economic conditions and other factors, including consumer spending and preferences, changes in interest rates and credit availability, consumer confidence, fuel costs, fuel availability, environmental impact, governmental incentives and regulatory requirements, and political volatility, especially in energy-producing countries and growth markets. In addition, automotive production and sales can be affected by our automotive OEM customers’ ability to continue operating in response to challenging economic conditions and in response to labor relations issues, regulatory requirements, trade agreements and other factors. The volume of automotive production in North America, Europe and the rest of the world has fluctuated, sometimes significantly, from year to year, and we expect such fluctuations to give rise to fluctuations in the demand for our products. Any significant adverse change in any of these factors may result in a reduction in automotive sales and production by our automotive OEM customers and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The discontinuation, lack of commercial success, or loss of business with respect to a particular vehicle model or other customer solution for which we are a significant supplier to, could reduce our sales and adversely affect our profitability.

If we are able to secure series production awards and our solutions are included in these autonomous driving and ADAS products, we expect to enter into supply agreements with the relevant customer. Market practice dictates that these supply agreements typically require us to supply a customer’s requirements for a particular vehicle model or autonomous driving or ADAS product, rather than supply a set number of products. These contracts can have short terms and/or can be subject to renegotiation, sometimes as frequently as annually, all of which may affect product pricing, and may be terminated by our customers at any time. Therefore, even if we are successful in obtaining series production awards and the systems into which our products are built are commercialized, the discontinuation of, the loss of business with respect to, or a lack of commercial success of a particular vehicle model or technology package for which we are a significant supplier could mean that the expected sales of our products will not materialize, materially and adversely affecting our business.

Since many of the markets in which we compete are new to lidar and rapidly evolving, it is difficult to forecast mid-to-long-term end-customer adoption rates and demand for our products.

We are pursuing opportunities in markets that are undergoing rapid changes, including technological and regulatory changes, and it is difficult to predict the timing and size of the opportunities. For example, autonomous driving and lidar-based ADAS applications require complex technology. Because these automotive systems depend on technology from many companies, commercialization of autonomous driving or ADAS products could be delayed or impaired on account of certain technological components of ours or others not being ready to be deployed in vehicles. Although OEM-B has planned to release several vehicles using our products, others may not be able to commercialize this technology immediately, or at all. Regulatory, safety or reliability developments, many of which are outside of our control, could also cause delays or otherwise impair commercial adoption of these new technologies, which will adversely affect our growth. Our future financial performance will depend on our ability to make timely investments in the correct market opportunities. If one or more of these markets experience a shift in customer or prospective customer demand, our products may not compete as effectively, if at all, and they may not be designed into commercialized products. Given the evolving nature of the markets in which we operate, it is difficult to predict customer demand or adoption rates for our products or the future growth of the markets in which we operate. As a result, the financial projections in this prospectus necessarily reflect various estimates and assumptions that may not prove accurate and these projections could differ materially from actual results due to the risks included in this “Risk Factors” section, among others. If demand does not develop or if we cannot accurately forecast customer demand, the size of our markets, inventory requirements or our future financial results, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected.

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We target many customers that are large companies with substantial negotiating power and potentially competitive internal solutions. If we are unable to sell our products to these customers, our prospects and results of operations will be adversely affected.

Many of our customers and potential customers are large, multinational companies with substantial negotiating power relative to us and, in some instances, may have internal solutions that are competitive to our products. These large, multinational companies also have significant resources, which may allow them to acquire or develop competitive technologies either independently or in partnership with others. Accordingly, even after investing significant resources to develop a product, we may not secure a series production award or, even after securing a series production award, may not be able to commercialize a product on profitable terms. If our products are not selected by these large companies or if these companies develop or acquire competitive technology or negotiate terms that are disadvantageous to us, it will have an adverse effect on our business and prospects.

Our business could be materially and adversely affected if we lost any of our largest customers or if they were unable to pay their invoices.

Although we have and continue to pursue a broad customer base, we are dependent on a collection of large customers with strong purchasing power. In the year ended December 31, 2021, our top ten customers represented 92% of our revenue. In 2020, our top ten customers represented 84% of our revenue. In the year ended December 31, 2021, one customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue. In 2020, three customers accounted for more than 10% of our annual revenue. The loss of business from any of our major customers (whether by lower overall demand for our products, cancellation of existing contracts or product orders or the failure to design in our products or award us new business) could have a material adverse effect on our business.

To the extent autonomous vehicle and ADAS systems become accepted by major automotive OEMs, we expects that we will rely increasingly on Tier 1 suppliers through which automotive OEMs procure components for our revenue. We expect that these Tier 1 suppliers will be responsible for certain hardware and software configuration activities specific to each OEM, and they may not exclusively carry our solutions.

There is also a risk that one or more of our major customers could be unable to pay our invoices as they become due or that a customer will simply refuse to make such payments if we experience financial difficulties. If a major customer were to enter into bankruptcy proceedings or similar proceedings whereby contractual commitments are subject to stay of execution and the possibility of legal or other modification, we could be forced to record a substantial loss.

If we are unable to establish and maintain confidence in our long-term business prospects among customers and analysts and within our industry or is subject to negative publicity, then our financial condition, operating results, business prospects and access to capital may suffer materially.

Customers may be less likely to purchase our lidar solutions if they are not convinced that our business will succeed or that our service and support and other operations will continue in the long term. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed. Accordingly, in order to build and maintain our business, we must maintain confidence among customers, suppliers, analysts, ratings agencies and other parties in our products, long-term financial viability and business prospects. Maintaining such confidence may be particularly complicated by certain factors including those that are largely outside of our control, such as customer unfamiliarity with our lidar solutions, any delays in scaling production, delivery and service operations to meet demand, competition and uncertainty regarding the future of autonomous vehicles or our other services and our production and sales performance compared with market expectations.

Our investments in educating our customers and potential customers about the advantages of lidar and our applications may not result in sales of our products.

Educating our prospective customers, and to a lesser extent, our existing customers, about lidar, our advantages over other sensing technologies and lidar’s ability to convey value in different industries and deployments is an integral part of developing new business and the lidar market generally. If prospective customers have a negative perception of, or experience with, lidar or a competitor’s lidar products they may be reluctant to adopt lidar in general or specifically our products. Adverse statements about lidar by influential market participants may also deter adoption. Some of our

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competitors have significant financial or marketing resources that may allow them to engage in public marketing campaigns about their alternative technology, lidar or our solutions. Our efforts to educate potential customers and the market generally and to counter any adverse statements made by competitors or other market participants will require significant financial and personnel resources. These educational efforts may not be successful and we may not offset the costs of such efforts with revenue from the new customers. If we are unable to acquire new customers to offset these expenses or if the market accepts such adverse statements, our financial condition will be adversely affected.

Certain of our strategic, development, production partner and supply arrangements could be terminated or may not materialize into long-term contract partnership arrangements.

We have arrangements with strategic, development, production partner and supply partners and collaborators. Some of these arrangements are evidenced by memorandums of understandings and others like our arrangement with Koito with respect to the OEM-B series production program are supplier onboarding arrangements, both of which will require further negotiation at later stages of development to include additional terms relating to pricing, volume and payment terms, or replacement by production or master agreements that have yet to be implemented under separately negotiated statements of work, each of which could be terminated or may not materialize into next-stage contracts or long-term contract partnership arrangements. If these arrangements are terminated or if we are unable to enter into next-stage contracts or long-term operational contracts, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected. Additionally, market practice dictates that contracts with auto OEMs typically require suppliers to fulfill a customer’s requirements for a particular vehicle model’s autonomous driving or ADAS features, rather than supply a set number of products. These contracts can be subject to renegotiation, which may affect product pricing, and may be terminated by our customers at any time. Therefore, even if we are successful in obtaining series production awards and the systems into which our products are built are commercialized, the discontinuation of, the loss of business with respect to, or a lack of commercial success of a particular vehicle model or technology package for which we are a significant supplier could mean that the expected sales of our products will not materialize, materially and adversely affecting our business and prospects.

We operate in a highly competitive market and some market participants have substantially greater resources. We compete against a large number of both established competitors and new market entrants.

The markets for sensing technology applicable to autonomous solutions in the automobile industry are highly competitive. Our future success will depend on our ability to remain a leader in our targeted markets by continuing to develop and protect from infringement advanced lidar technology in a timely manner and to stay ahead of existing and new competitors. Our competitors are numerous and they compete with us directly by offering lidar products and indirectly by attempting to solve some of the same challenges with different technology. We face competition from camera and radar companies, other developers of lidar products, Tier 1 suppliers and other technology and automotive supply companies, some of which have significantly greater resources than us. Some examples of our competitors include Velodyne Lidar Inc. (Nasdaq: VLDR), Aeva Technologies, Inc. (Nasdaq: AEVA), Ouster, Inc. (Nasdaq: OUST), Luminar Technologies Inc. (Nasdaq: LAZR) and Innoviz Technologies, Inc. (Nasdaq: INVZ). In the Automotive market, our competitors have attempted to commercialize both lidar and non-lidar-based ADAS technology that may achieve market adoption, strong brand recognition and may continue to improve. Other competitors are working towards commercializing autonomous driving technology and either by themselves, or with a publicly announced partner, have substantial financial, marketing, R&D and other resources. Some of our customers in the autonomous vehicle and ADAS markets have announced development efforts or made acquisitions directed at creating their own lidar-based or other sensing technologies, which would compete with our solutions. In markets outside of the automotive industry, our competitors, like us, seek to develop new sensing applications across industries. Even in these emerging markets, we face substantial competition from numerous competitors seeking to prove the value of their technology.

Additionally, increased competition may result in pricing pressure and reduced margins and may impede our ability to increase the sales of our products or cause us to lose market share, any of which will adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The markets in which we compete are characterized by rapid technological change, which requires us to continue to develop new products and product innovations and could adversely affect market adoption of our products.

While we intend to invest substantial resources to remain on the forefront of technological development, continuing technological changes in sensing technology, lidar and the markets for these products, including the ADAS and autonomous driving industries, could adversely affect adoption of lidar and/or our products, either generally or

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for particular applications. Our future success will depend upon our ability to develop and introduce a variety of new capabilities and innovations to our existing product offerings, as well as introduce a variety of new product offerings, to address the changing needs of the markets in which we offer our products. We are currently working on developing our directional lidar and perception software for both the Automotive and non-Automotive markets. We cannot guarantee that such products will be released in a timely manner, or at all, or achieve market acceptance. For example, some of our key suppliers were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in supply chain disruptions and a delay in customers’ orders and production schedules. These issues were largely resolved in the third quarter of 2020 but any delays in delivering new products that meet customer requirements could damage our relationships with customers and lead them to seek alternative sources of supply.

In addition, our success to date has been based on the delivery of our solutions to R&D programs in which developers are investing substantial capital to develop new systems. Our continued success relies on the success of the development phase of these customers as they expand their market share through the commercialization of new products. As ADAS and autonomous technology reaches the stage of large-scale commercialization, we will be required to develop and deliver solutions at price points that enable wider and ultimately mass-market adoption. Delays in introducing products and innovations, the failure to choose correctly among technical alternatives or the failure to offer innovative products or configurations at competitive prices may cause existing and potential customers to purchase our competitors’ products or turn to alternative sensing technology.

If we are unable to devote adequate resources to develop products or cannot otherwise successfully develop products or system configurations that meet customer requirements on a timely basis or that remain competitive with technological alternatives, our products could lose market share, our revenue will decline, we may experience operating losses and our business and prospects will be adversely affected.

Developments in alternative technology may adversely affect the demand for our lidar technology.

Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as cameras and radar, may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results in ways we do not currently anticipate. Existing and other camera and radar technologies may emerge as customers’ preferred alternative to our solutions. Any failure by us to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay our development and introduction of new and enhanced products in the autonomous vehicle industry, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of our lidar solutions, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors. Our R&D efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in technology. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our lidar solutions with the latest technology. However, our solutions may not compete effectively with alternative systems if we are not able to source and integrate the latest technology into our existing lidar solutions.

Because lidar is new in most of the markets we are seeking to enter, forecasts of market growth and our growth in this prospectus may not materialize as anticipated.

Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts included in this prospectus are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not materialize as anticipated. The forecasts and estimates in this prospectus relating to the expected size and growth of the markets for lidar-based technology may prove to be inaccurate. Even if these markets experience the forecasted growth described in this prospectus, we may not grow our business at similar rates, or at all. Our future growth is subject to many factors, including market adoption of our products, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, the forecasts and estimates of market size and growth described in this prospectus, including our estimates that the size of our total addressable market is expected to grow from approximately $19 billion in 2020 to $59 billion by 2030, should not be taken as indicative of our future growth. In addition, these forecasts do not take into account the impact of the current global COVID-19 pandemic, and we cannot assure you that these forecasts will not be materially and adversely affected as a result.

We may need to raise additional capital in the future in order to execute our business plan, which may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

In the future, we may require additional capital to respond to technological advancements, competitive dynamics or technologies, customer demands, business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances and we may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities for other reasons. In order to

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further business relationships with current or potential customers or partners, we may issue equity or equity-linked securities to such current or potential customers or partners. Because the exercise price of the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants substantially exceeds the current trading price of our common stock, holders are unlikely to exercise such warrants in the near future, if at all, and as a result our Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants may not provide any additional capital. We may not be able to timely secure additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt or other equity-linked securities or if we issue equity or equity-linked securities to current or potential customers to further business relationships, our existing stockholders could experience significant dilution. Any debt financing obtained by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be adversely affected.

As a result of the Business Combination, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and the rules and regulations of Nasdaq. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems and resources.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls, internal control over financial reporting and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we will file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms, and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers.

Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may be inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business. Further, additional weaknesses in our internal controls may be discovered in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls, or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement, could adversely affect our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal controls also could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we are required to include in our periodic reports we will file with the SEC under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information.

In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended and anticipate that we will continue to expend significant resources, including accounting-related costs, and provide significant management oversight. Any failure to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, could increase our operating costs and could materially and adversely affect our ability to operate our business. If our internal controls are perceived as inadequate or as unable to produce timely or accurate financial statements, investors may lose confidence in our operating results and our stock price could decline.

Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until after we are no longer an emerging growth company. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could have a material and adverse effect on our business and operating results.

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Changes in tax laws or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our future profitability.

Factors that could materially affect our future effective tax rates include but are not limited to:

•        changes in tax laws or the regulatory environment;

•        changes in accounting and tax standards or practices;

•        changes in the composition of operating income by tax jurisdiction; and

•        our operating results before taxes.

Because we do not have a long history of operating at our present scale and we have significant expansion plans, our effective tax rate may fluctuate in the future. Future effective tax rates could be affected by operating losses in jurisdictions where no tax benefit can be recorded under GAAP, changes in the composition of earnings in countries with differing tax rates, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws.

On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”), was signed into law making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). In particular, sweeping changes were made to the U.S. taxation of foreign operations. Changes include, but are not limited to, a permanent reduction to the corporate income tax rate, limiting interest deductions, adopting elements of a territorial tax system, assessing a repatriation tax or “toll-charge” on undistributed earnings and profits of U.S.-owned foreign corporations, and introducing certain anti-base erosion provisions, including a new minimum tax on global intangible low-taxed income and base erosion and anti-abuse tax. The new legislation had no effect on our 2018 and 2019 or 2020 provision for income taxes because we incurred losses in the U.S. in these years, and the management set up a full valuation allowance against our U.S. federal and states deferred tax assets.

In addition to the impact of the Tax Act on our federal taxes, the Tax Act may impact our taxation in other jurisdictions, including with respect to state income taxes. State legislatures have not had sufficient time to respond to the Tax Act. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to how the laws will apply in the various state jurisdictions. Additionally, other foreign governing bodies may enact changes to their tax laws that could result in changes to our global tax position and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, the IRS and several foreign tax authorities have increasingly focused attention on intercompany transfer pricing with respect to sales of products and services and the use of intangibles. Tax authorities could disagree with our future intercompany charges, cross-jurisdictional transfer pricing or other matters and assess additional taxes. If we do not prevail in any such disagreements, our profitability may be affected.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2021, we had $83.4 million of U.S. federal and $33.3 million of state net operating loss carryforwards available to reduce future taxable income. Of the $83.4 million in U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards, $81.3 million will be carried forward indefinitely for U.S. federal tax purposes and $2.1 million will begin to expire in 2037. $33.3 million of our U.S. state net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire in 2037. It is possible that we will not generate taxable income in time to use these net operating loss carryforwards before their expiration or at all. Under legislative changes made in December 2017, U.S. federal net operating losses incurred in 2018 and in future years may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating losses is limited. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the newly enacted federal tax law. In addition, the federal and state net operating loss carryforwards and certain tax credits may be subject to significant limitations under Section 382 and Section 383 of the Code, respectively, and similar provisions of state law. Under those sections of the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset its post-change income or tax may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” will occur if there is a cumulative change in our ownership by “5-percent shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We have not yet undertaken an analysis of whether the Business Combination constituted an “ownership change” for purposes of Section 382 and Section 383 of the Code. In addition, certain U.S. states have imposed additional limitations on the use of net operating loss carryforwards not otherwise imposed on the use of U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards and may impose additional limitations in the future.

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Our business depends substantially on the efforts of our co-founders, Dr. Jun Pei and Dr. Mark McCord, our executive officers and highly skilled personnel, and our operations may be severely disrupted if we lost their services.

We are highly dependent on Dr. Jun Pei and Dr. Mark McCord, our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and Chief Technology Officer (“CTO”), respectively. Dr. Pei and Dr. McCord are deeply involved in our business. The loss of Dr. Pei or Dr. McCord would adversely affect our business because the loss could make it more difficult to, among other things, compete with other market participants, manage our R&D activities and retain existing customers or cultivate new ones. Negative public perception of, or negative news related, to Dr. Pei or Dr. McCord may adversely affect our brand, relationship with customers or standing in the industry.

Further, competition for highly-skilled personnel is often intense, especially in San Jose, California, where we are headquartered, and we may incur significant costs to attract highly-skilled personnel. We may not be successful in attracting, integrating, or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs. We have, from time-to-time, experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled employees with appropriate qualifications. In addition, job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity or equity awards declines, we may adversely affect our ability to retain highly skilled employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be adversely affected.

Unanticipated changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and other jurisdictions, and our tax liabilities will be subject to the allocation of expenses in differing jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

•        changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;

•        expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances;

•        tax effects of stock-based compensation;

•        costs related to intercompany restructurings;

•        changes in tax laws, regulations or interpretations thereof; or

•        lower than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory tax rates.

In addition, we may be subject to audits of our income, sales and other transaction taxes by taxing authorities. Outcomes from these audits could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business has been and may continue to be materially and adversely affected by the current global COVID-19 pandemic or other health epidemics and outbreaks.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as well as other possible health epidemics and outbreaks could result in a material adverse impact on our or our customers’ business operations including reduction or suspension of operations in the U.S. or certain parts of the world. During the second and third quarters of 2020, we slowed our operating and capital spending with the expectation that our revenue would be impacted by the global pandemic. While we believe that the pandemic will act as a long-term catalyst for vehicle sales and wider adoption of ADAS programs, our overall growth rate during 2020 and 2021 has been impacted by the pandemic.

Our engineering and manufacturing operations, among others, cannot all be conducted in a remote working structure and often require on-site access to materials and equipment. We have customers with international operations in varying industries. We also depend on suppliers and manufacturers worldwide. As a Silicon Valley based company, we were affected by the “shelter in place” order starting from the first quarter of 2020 until the second quarter of 2021. While the majority of our employees were able to work from home, some employees, especially manufacturing technicians, were not able to work from home. The “shelter in place” order delayed order fulfillment and revenue recognition during 2020 and the first half of 2021. Additionally, we continued to pay employees during the “shelter

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in place” order if they did not choose to take unpaid leave. Manufacturing and order fulfillment employees were able to return to work in the second quarter of 2020; however, the number of employees allowed on premises at one time was greatly reduced which also affected our ability to fulfill orders and recognize revenue. Additionally, some of our key suppliers were affected by the pandemic resulting in supply chain disruptions. These issues further delayed order fulfillment and revenue recognition but were largely resolved in the third quarter of 2020. Some customers have delayed orders and production schedules due to COVID-19.

Depending upon the duration of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the associated business interruptions, our customers, suppliers, manufacturers and partners may suspend or delay their engagement with us, which could result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition. If the pandemic worsens, if the economic recovery is delayed or if there are further business interruptions or changes in customer purchasing behavior, our business, results of operations and ability to raise capital may be materially and adversely affected. Our response to the COVID-19 pandemic may prove to be inadequate and we may be unable to continue our operations in the manner we had prior to the outbreak, and may endure interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our product development and shipments, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, when the pandemic subsides, we cannot assure you as to the timing of any economic recovery, which could continue to have a material adverse effect on our target markets and our business.

Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, floods and other natural catastrophic events, global pandemics, and interruptions by man-made problems, such as terrorism. Material disruptions of our business or information systems resulting from these events could adversely affect our operating results.

A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, flood, hurricane or significant power outage or other similar events, such as infectious disease outbreaks or pandemic events, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, such as the demand for our products, our ability to achieve or maintain profitability and our ability to raise additional capital in the future. Our corporate headquarters and R&D and manufacturing base are located in California. We are headquartered in the San Francisco Bay Area California, a region known for seismic activity. In addition, natural disasters, acts of terrorism or war could cause disruptions in our remaining manufacturing operations, our or our customers’ or channel partners’ businesses, our suppliers’ or the economy as a whole. We also rely on information technology systems to communicate among our workforce and with third parties. Any disruption to our communications, whether caused by a natural disaster or by manmade problems, such as power disruptions, could adversely affect our business. We do not have a formal disaster recovery plan or policy in place and does not currently require that our suppliers’ partners have such plans or policies in place. To the extent that any such disruptions result in delays or cancellations of orders or impede our suppliers’ ability to timely deliver product components, or the deployment of our products, our business, operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected.

Interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could impact our ability to effectively provide our services.

We plan to include in-vehicle services and functionality that utilize data connectivity to monitor performance and timely capture opportunities to enhance performance and functionality. The availability and effectiveness of our services depend on the continued operation of information technology and communications systems. Our systems will be vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among others, physical theft, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, war, telecommunications failures, viruses, denial or degradation of service attacks, ransomware, social engineering schemes, insider theft or misuse or other attempts to harm our systems. We utilize reputable third-party service providers or vendors for all of our data other than our source code, and these providers could also be vulnerable to harms similar to those that could damage our systems, including sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism causing potential disruptions. Some of our systems will not be fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems with our third-party cloud hosting providers could result in lengthy interruptions in our business. In addition, our in-vehicle services and functionality are highly technical and complex technology which may contain errors or vulnerabilities that could result in interruptions in our business or the failure of our systems.

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We are subject to cybersecurity risks to operational systems, security systems, infrastructure, integrated software in our lidar solutions and customer data processed by us or third-party vendors or suppliers and any material failure, weakness, interruption, cyber event, incident or breach of security could prevent us from effectively operating our business and subject us to regulatory actions or litigation.

We are at risk for interruptions, outages and breaches of: operational systems, including business, financial, accounting, product development, data processing or production processes, owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers; facility security systems, owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers; in-product technology owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers; the integrated software in our lidar solutions; or customer or driver data that we process or our third-party vendors or suppliers process on our behalf. Such cyber incidents could materially disrupt operational systems; result in loss of intellectual property, trade secrets or other proprietary or competitively sensitive information; compromise certain information of customers, employees, suppliers, drivers or others; jeopardize the security of our facilities; or affect the performance of in-product technology and the integrated software in our lidar solutions. A cyber incident could be caused by disasters, insiders (through inadvertence or with malicious intent) or malicious third parties (including nation-states or nation-state supported actors) using sophisticated, targeted methods to circumvent firewalls, encryption and other security defenses, including hacking, fraud, trickery or other forms of deception. The techniques used by cyber attackers change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. Although we maintain information technology measures designed to protect us against intellectual property theft, data breaches and other cyber incidents, such measures will require updates and improvements, and we cannot guarantee that such measures will be adequate to detect, prevent or mitigate cyber incidents. The implementation, maintenance, segregation and improvement of these systems requires significant management time, support and cost. Moreover, there are inherent risks associated with developing, improving, expanding and updating current systems, including the disruption of our data management, procurement, production execution, finance, supply chain and sales and service processes. These risks may affect our ability to manage our data and inventory, procure parts or supplies or produce, sell, deliver and service our solutions, adequately protect our intellectual property or achieve and maintain compliance with, or realize available benefits under, applicable laws, regulations and contracts. We cannot be sure that the systems upon which we rely, including those of our third-party vendors or suppliers, will be effectively implemented, maintained or expanded as planned. If we do not successfully implement, maintain or expand these systems as planned, our operations may be disrupted, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results could be impaired, and deficiencies may arise in our internal control over financial reporting, which may impact our ability to certify our financial results. Moreover, our proprietary information or intellectual property could be compromised or misappropriated and our reputation may be adversely affected. If these systems do not operate as we expect them to, we may be required to expend significant resources to make corrections or find alternative sources for performing these functions.

A significant cyber incident could impact production capability, harm our reputation, cause us to breach our contracts with other parties or subject us to regulatory actions or litigation, any of which could materially affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. In addition, our insurance coverage for cyber-attacks may not be sufficient to cover all the losses we may experience as a result of a cyber incident.

We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If our remediation of this material weakness is not effective, or if we experience additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls in the future, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal control over financial reporting. In connection with the audits of our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2021, and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting:

•        we did not maintain a sufficient complement of resources with an appropriate level of accounting knowledge and experience commensurate with the financial reporting requirements for a public company, in particular with respect to technical accounting knowledge regarding the accounting for certain non-standard transactions.

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We cannot assure you that additional significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Any failure to maintain or implement required new or improved controls, or to implement our remediation plans or any difficulties we encounter in our implementation thereof, could result in additional significant deficiencies or material weaknesses or result in material misstatements in our financial statements. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting when required, lenders and investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports.

This material weakness, if not remediated, could result in misstatements of accounts or disclosures that would result in a material misstatement to the annual or interim consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected.

Our management anticipates that our internal control over financial reporting will not be effective until the above material weakness is remediated. If our remediation of this material weakness is not effective, or we experience additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting in the future, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected, we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports in addition to the Nasdaq listing requirements, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting, and the price of our common stock may decline as a result. In addition, we may be unable to sell shares of common stock to Lincoln Park pursuant to the Purchase Agreement at prices we consider to be reasonable or at all, unable to borrow additional funds under our Loan Agreement with Trinity Capital Inc. and we may face restricted access to various sources of financing in the future.

As part of our transition to a public company, we planned to hire additional personnel with accounting knowledge and experience. We recently hired a new Director of Finance and Accounting and we will continue to evaluate our accounting and financial needs in light of the material weakness described above. We expect the hiring of additional personnel with accounting knowledge and experience will allow us to remediate the material weakness described above well in advance of December 31, 2022; however, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in hiring personnel with the necessary knowledge and experience or that our remediation efforts will be completed prior to the audit of our 2022 financial statements.

Legal and Regulatory Risks Related to Our Business

We are subject to governmental export and import control laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Our products and solutions are subject to export control and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. U.S. export control laws and regulations and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products and services to U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments and persons. In addition, complying with export control and sanctions regulations for a particular sale may be time-consuming and result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Exports of our products and technology must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges, fines, which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.

Changes to trade policy, tariffs and import/export regulations may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in global political, regulatory and economic conditions or in laws and policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, development and investment in the territories or countries where we may purchase our components, sells our products or conducts our business could adversely affect our business. The U.S. has recently instituted or

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proposed changes in trade policies that include the negotiation or termination of trade agreements, the imposition of higher tariffs on imports into the U.S., economic sanctions on individuals, corporations or countries, and other government regulations affecting trade between the U.S. and other countries where we conduct our business.

A number of other nations have proposed or instituted similar measures directed at trade with the United States in response. As a result of these developments, there may be greater restrictions and economic disincentives on international trade that could adversely affect our business. For example, such changes could adversely affect the Automotive market, our ability to access key components or raw materials needed to manufacture our products (including, but not limited to, rare-earth metals), our ability to sell our products to customers outside of the U.S. and the demand for our products. It may be time-consuming and expensive for us to alter our business operations to adapt to or comply with any such changes, and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have in the past and may become involved in legal and regulatory proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes, which could have an adverse effect on our profitability and consolidated financial position.

We may be, from time to time, involved in litigation, regulatory proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes that may be significant. These matters may include, without limitation, disputes with our suppliers and customers, intellectual property claims, stockholder litigation, government investigations, class action lawsuits, personal injury claims, environmental issues, customs and value-added tax disputes and employment and tax issues. In addition, we could face in the future a variety of labor and employment claims against us, which could include but is not limited to general discrimination, wage and hour, privacy, ERISA or disability claims. In such matters, government agencies or private parties may seek to recover from us very large, indeterminate amounts in penalties or monetary damages (including, in some cases, treble or punitive damages) or seek to limit our operations in some way. These types of lawsuits could require significant management time and attention or could involve substantial legal liability, adverse regulatory outcomes, and/or substantial expenses to defend. Often these cases raise complex factual and legal issues and create risks and uncertainties. No assurances can be given that any proceedings and claims will not have a material adverse impact on our operating results and consolidated financial position or that our established reserves or our available insurance will mitigate this impact.

We are subject to, and must remain in compliance with, numerous laws and governmental regulations across various jurisdictions concerning the manufacturing, use, distribution and sale of our products. Some of our customers also require that we comply with their own unique requirements relating to these matters. These could impose substantial costs upon us and materially impact our ability to fulfil certain business opportunities.

We manufacture and sell products that contain electronic components, and such components may contain materials that are subject to government regulation in both the locations where we manufacture and assemble our products, as well as the locations where we sell our products. For example, certain regulations limit the use of lead in electronic components. Since we operate on a global basis, this is a complex process which requires continual monitoring of regulations and an ongoing compliance process to ensure that we and our suppliers and distributors are in compliance with existing regulations in each market where we operate. If there is an unanticipated new regulation that significantly impacts our use and sourcing of various components or requires more expensive components, that regulation could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition by subjecting substantial costs upon us and impeding our ability to fulfil certain business opportunities. Our products are used for autonomous driving and ADAS applications, which are subject to complicated regulatory schemes that vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. These are rapidly evolving areas where new regulations could impose limitations on the use of lidar generally or our products specifically. If we fail to adhere to these new regulations or fails to continually monitor the updates, we may be subject to litigation, loss of customers or negative publicity and our business, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected.

We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs upon us.

Concerns over environmental pollution and climate change have produced significant legislative and regulatory efforts on a global basis, and we believe this will continue both in scope and in the number of countries participating. In addition, as climate change issues become more prevalent, foreign, federal, state and local governments and our customers have been responding to these issues. The increased focus on environmental sustainability may result in new regulations and customer requirements, or changes in current regulations and customer requirements, which could

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materially adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. If we are unable to effectively manage real or perceived issues, including concerns about environmental impacts or similar matters, sentiments toward us or our products could be negatively impacted, and our business, results of operations or financial condition could suffer.

Our operations are and will be subject to international, federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, and such laws and regulations could directly increase the cost of energy, which may have an effect on the way we manufacture products or utilizes energy to produce our products. In addition, any new regulations or laws in the environmental area might increase the cost of raw materials or key components we use in our products. Environmental regulations require us to reduce product energy usage, monitor and exclude an expanding list of restricted substances and to participate in required recovery and recycling of our products. Environmental and health and safety laws and regulations can be complex, and we have limited experience complying with them. Capital and operating expenses needed to comply with environmental laws and regulations can be significant, and violations may result in substantial fines and penalties, third-party damages, suspension of production or a cessation of our operations.

Contamination at properties we operate, we formerly operated or to which hazardous substances were sent by us, may result in liability for us under environmental laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which can impose liability for the full amount of remediation-related costs without regard to fault, for the investigation and cleanup of contaminated soil and ground water, for building contamination and impacts to human health and for damages to natural resources. The costs of complying with environmental laws and regulations and any claims concerning noncompliance, or liability with respect to contamination in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or operating results. We may face unexpected delays in obtaining the required permits and approvals in connection with our planned production facilities that could require significant time and financial resources and delay our ability to operate these facilities, which would adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We are subject to U.S. and foreign anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws and regulations. We can face criminal liability and other serious consequences for violations, which can harm our business.

We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act and possibly other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees, agents, contractors and other collaborators from authorizing, promising, offering or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or anything else of value to recipients in the public or private sector. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our employees, agents, contractors and other collaborators, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have actual knowledge of such activities. Any violations of the laws and regulations described above may result in substantial civil and criminal fines and penalties, imprisonment, the loss of export or import privileges, debarment, tax reassessments, breach of contract and fraud litigation, reputational harm and other consequences.

Our business may be adversely affected by changes in automotive and laser safety regulations or concerns that drive further regulation of the automotive and laser markets.

Government product safety regulations are an important factor for our business. Historically, these regulations have imposed ever-more stringent safety regulations for vehicles and laser products. These safety regulations often require, or customers demand that, vehicles have more safety features per vehicle and more advanced safety products.

While we believe increasing automotive and laser safety standards will present a market opportunity for our products, government safety regulations are subject to change based on a number of factors that are not within our control, including, among others, new scientific or technological data, adverse publicity regarding the industry recalls and safety risks of autonomous driving and ADAS, accidents involving our products, domestic and foreign political developments or considerations, and litigation relating to our products and our competitors’ products. Changes in automotive, lidar sensor and safety government regulations, especially in the autonomous driving and ADAS industries, could adversely affect our business. If government priorities shift and we are unable to adapt to changing regulations, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

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Federal and local regulators impose more stringent compliance and reporting requirements in response to product recalls and safety issues in the automotive and laser industry. We are subject to existing stringent requirements under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (the “Vehicle Safety Act”), including a duty to report, subject to strict timing requirements, safety defects with our products. The Vehicle Safety Act imposes potentially significant civil penalties for violations including the failure to comply with such reporting actions. We are also subject to the existing U.S. Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act (“TREAD”), which requires equipment manufacturers, such as us, to comply with “Early Warning” requirements by reporting certain information to the NHTSA, such as information related to defects or reports of injury related to our products. TREAD imposes criminal liability for violating such requirements if a defect subsequently causes death or bodily injury. In addition, the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act authorizes NHTSA to require a manufacturer to recall and repair vehicles that contain safety defects or fail to comply with U.S. federal motor vehicle safety standards. Sales into foreign countries may be subject to similar regulations. If we cannot rapidly address any safety concerns or defects with our products, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

The U.S. Department of Transportation issued regulations in 2016 that require manufacturers of certain autonomous vehicles to provide documentation covering specific topics to regulators, such as how automated systems detect objects on the road, how information is displayed to drivers, what cybersecurity measures are in place and the methods used to test the design and validation of autonomous driving systems. As cars that carry our sensors go into production, the obligations of complying with safety regulations could increase and it could require increased resources and adversely affect our business.

Autonomous and ADAS features may be delayed in adoption by OEMs, and our business impacted, as additional safety requirements are imposed on vehicle manufacturers.

The ADAS market is fast evolving and there is generally a lack of an established regulatory framework. Vehicle regulators globally continue to consider new and enhanced emissions requirements, including electrification, to meet environmental and economic needs as well as pursue new safety standards to address emerging traffic risks. To control new vehicle prices, among other concerns, OEMs may need to dedicate technology and cost additions to new vehicle designs to meet these emissions and safety requirements and postpone the consumer cost pressures of new autonomous and ADAS features. As additional safety requirements are imposed on vehicle manufacturers, our business may be materially impacted.

Our business may be adversely affected if it fails to comply with the regulatory requirements under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic or the Food and Drug Administration.

As a lidar technology company, we, as well as any potential collaborative partners such as distributors, are subject to the Electronic Product Radiation Control Provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. These requirements are enforced by the Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”). Electronic product radiation includes laser technology. Regulations governing these products are intended to protect the public from hazardous or unnecessary exposure. Manufacturers are required to certify in product labeling and reports to the FDA that their products comply with applicable performance standards as well as maintain manufacturing, testing, and distribution records for their products. Our, or any of our potential collaborative partners such as distributors’, failure to comply with these requirements could result in enforcement action by the FDA, which could require us to cease distribution of our products, recall or remediate products already distributed to customers, or subject us to FDA enforcement.

We are subject to data privacy and cybersecurity risks to operational systems, security systems, infrastructure, integrated software in our lidar solutions and customer data processed by us or third-party vendors or suppliers and any material failure, weakness, interruption, cyber event, incident or breach of security could prevent us from effectively operating our business and subject us to regulatory actions or litigation.

Our current and potential future operations and sales subject us to laws and regulations addressing privacy and the collection, use, storage, disclosure, transfer and protection of a variety of types of data. For example, the European Commission has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation and California recently enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, both of which provide for potentially material penalties for non-compliance. These regimes may, among other things, impose data security requirements, disclosure requirements, and restrictions on data collection, uses, and sharing that may impact our operations and the development of our business. While, generally, we do not have access to, collect, store, process, or share certain information collected by our solutions unless our

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customers choose to proactively provide such information to us, our products may evolve both to address potential customer requirements or to add new features and functionality. Therefore, the full impact of these privacy regimes on our business is rapidly evolving across jurisdictions and remains uncertain at this time.

We may also be affected by cyber-attacks and other means of gaining unauthorized access to our products, systems, and data. For instance, cyber criminals or insiders may target us or third parties with which it has business relationships to obtain data, or in a manner that disrupts our operations or compromises our products or the systems into which our products are integrated.

We are assessing the continually evolving privacy and data security regimes and measures we believe are appropriate in response. Since these data security regimes are evolving, uncertain and complex, especially for a global business like ours, it may need to update or enhance our compliance measures as our products, markets and customer demands further develop, and these updates or enhancements may require implementation costs. In addition, we may not be able to monitor and react to all developments in a timely manner. The compliance measures we do adopt may prove ineffective. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with current and future regulatory or customer-driven privacy, data protection, and information security requirements, or to prevent or mitigate security breaches, cyber-attacks, or improper access to, use of, or disclosure of data, or any security issues or cyber-attacks affecting us, could result in significant liability, costs (including the costs of mitigation and recovery), and a material loss of revenue resulting from the adverse impact on our reputation and brand, loss of proprietary information and data, disruption to our business and relationships, and diminished ability to retain or attract customers and business partners. Such events may result in governmental enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity, and could cause customers and business partners to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.

Regulations related to conflict minerals may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the costs of certain metals used in the manufacturing of our products.

We are subject to the requirements under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) that will require us to determine, disclose and report whether our products contain conflict minerals. The implementation of these requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability and pricing of the materials used in the manufacture of components used in our products. In addition, we will incur additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including costs related to conducting diligence procedures to determine the sources of conflict minerals that may be used in or necessary to the production of our products and, if applicable, potential changes to products, processes or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. It is also possible that our reputation may be adversely affected if we determine that certain of our products contain minerals not determined to be conflict-free or if we are unable to alter our products, processes or sources of supply to avoid use of such materials.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

Despite the actions we are taking to defend and protect our intellectual property, we may not be able to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions. Our efforts to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights and prevent third parties from violating our rights may be costly.

The success of our products and our business depend in part on our ability to obtain patents and other intellectual property rights and maintain adequate legal protection for our products in the United States and other international jurisdictions. We rely on a combination of patent, service mark, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to establish and protect our proprietary rights, all of which provide only limited protection.

We cannot assure you that any patents will be issued with respect to our currently pending patent applications or that any trademarks will be registered with respect to our currently pending applications in a manner that gives us adequate defensive protection or competitive advantages, if at all, or that any patents issued to us or any trademarks registered by us will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. We have filed for patents and trademarks in the United States and in certain international jurisdictions, but such protections may not be available in all countries in which we operate or in which we seek to enforce our intellectual property rights, or may be difficult to enforce in

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practice. Our currently-issued patents and trademarks and any patents and trademarks that may be issued or registered, as applicable, in the future with respect to pending or future applications may not provide sufficiently broad protection or may not prove to be enforceable in actions against alleged infringers. Our foreign intellectual property portfolio is not as comprehensive as our U.S. intellectual property portfolio and may not protect our intellectual property in some countries where our products are sold or may be sold in the future. We cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology or the reverse engineering of our technology. Moreover, others may independently develop technologies that are competitive to us or infringe our intellectual property.

Protecting against the unauthorized use of our intellectual property, products and other proprietary rights is expensive and difficult, particularly internationally. We believe that our patents are foundational in the area of lidar products and intends to enforce the intellectual property portfolio we haves built over the years. Unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or reverse engineer our lidar technology or certain aspects of our solutions that we consider proprietary. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to block the importation of infringing products into the United States.

Any such litigation, whether initiated by us or a third party, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, either of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. Even if we obtain favorable outcomes in litigation, we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies, especially in the context of unauthorized parties copying or reverse engineering our solutions.

Further, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to defending intellectual property infringement claims and to enforcing their intellectual property rights than we have. Attempts to enforce our rights against third parties could also provoke these third parties to assert their own intellectual property or other rights against us or result in a holding that invalidates or narrows the scope of our rights, in whole or in part. Effective patent, trademark, service mark, copyright and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our products are available and competitors based in other countries may sell infringing products in one or more markets. Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue, which would adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.

Third-party claims that we are infringing intellectual property, whether successful or not, could subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses, and our business could be adversely affected.

Although we hold key patents related to our products, a number of companies, both within and outside of the lidar industry, hold other patents covering aspects of lidar products. In addition to these patents, participants in this industry typically also protect their technology, especially embedded software, through copyrights and trade secrets.

As a result, there is frequent litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights. We have received, and in the future may receive, inquiries from other intellectual property holders and may become subject to claims that we infringe their intellectual property rights, particularly as we expand our presence in the market, expands to new use cases and faces increasing competition. In addition, parties may claim that the names and branding of our products infringe their trademark rights in certain countries or territories. If such a claim were to prevail, we may have to change the names and branding of our products in the affected territories and we could incur other costs.

We currently have a number of agreements in effect pursuant to which we have agreed to defend, indemnify and hold harmless our customers, suppliers, and channel partners and other partners from damages and costs which may arise from the infringement by our products of third-party patents or other intellectual property rights. The scope of these indemnity obligations varies, but may, in some instances, include indemnification for damages and expenses, including attorneys’ fees. Our insurance may not cover all intellectual property infringement claims. A claim that our products infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, even if untrue, could adversely affect our relationships with our customers, may deter future customers from purchasing our products and could expose us to costly litigation and settlement expenses. Even if we are not a party to any litigation between a customer and a third party relating to infringement by our products, an adverse outcome in any such litigation could make us more difficult for us to defend our products against intellectual property infringement claims in any subsequent litigation in which we are a named party. Any of these results could adversely affect our brand and operating results.

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We may in the future need to initiate infringement claims or litigation in order to try to protect our intellectual property rights. In addition to litigation where we are a plaintiff, our defense of intellectual property rights claims brought against us or our customers, suppliers and channel partners, with or without merit, could be time-consuming, expensive to litigate or settle, divert management resources and attention and force us to acquire intellectual property rights and licenses, which may involve substantial royalty or other payments and may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. Further, a party making such a claim, if successful, could secure a judgment that requires us to pay substantial damages or obtain an injunction, and we may also lose the opportunity to license our technology to others or to collect royalty payments. An adverse determination also could invalidate or narrow our intellectual property rights and adversely affect our ability to offer our products to our customers and may require that we procure or develop substitute products that do not infringe, which could require significant effort and expense. Any of these events could adversely affect our business, reputation, operating results, financial condition and prospects.

Our intellectual property applications for registration may not issue or be registered, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to ours.

We cannot be certain that we are the first inventor of the subject matter to which we have filed a particular patent application, or if we are the first party to file such a patent application. If another party has filed a patent application to the same subject matter as we have, we may not be entitled to the protection sought by the patent application. We also cannot be certain whether the claims included in a patent application will ultimately be allowed in the applicable issued patent or the timing of any approval or grant of a patent application. Further, the scope of protection of issued patent claims is often difficult to determine. As a result, we cannot be certain that the patent applications that we file will issue, or that our issued patents will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. In addition, our competitors may design around our issued patents, which may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

In addition to patented technology, we rely on our unpatented proprietary technology, trade secrets, designs, experiences, work flows, data, processes, software and know-how.

We rely on proprietary information (such as trade secrets, designs, experiences, work flows, data, know-how and confidential information) to protect intellectual property that may not be patentable or subject to copyright, trademark, trade dress or service mark protection, or that we believe is best protected by means that do not require public disclosure. We generally seek to protect this proprietary information by entering into confidentiality agreements, or consulting, services or employment agreements that contain non-disclosure and non-use provisions with our employees, consultants, contractors and third parties. However, we may fail to enter into the necessary agreements, and even if entered into, these agreements may be breached or may otherwise fail to prevent disclosure, third-party infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary information, may be limited as to their term and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure or use of proprietary information. We have limited control over the protection of trade secrets used by our current or future manufacturing partners and suppliers and could lose future trade secret protection if any unauthorized disclosure of such information occurs. In addition, our proprietary information may otherwise become known or be independently developed by our competitors or other third parties. To the extent that our employees, consultants, contractors, advisors and other third parties use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or resulting know-how and inventions. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain protection for our proprietary information could adversely affect our competitive business position. Furthermore, laws regarding trade secret rights in certain markets where we operate may afford little or no protection to our trade secrets.

We also rely on physical and electronic security measures to protect our proprietary information, but we cannot provide assurance that these security measures will not be breached or provide adequate protection for our property. There is a risk that third parties may obtain and improperly utilize our proprietary information to our competitive disadvantage. We may not be able to detect or prevent the unauthorized use of such information or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce our intellectual property rights.

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We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our current or former employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ former employers. We may be subject to damages if our current or former employees wrongfully use or disclose our trade secrets.

We may be subject to claims that we or our current or former employees have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of a current or former employee’s former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. A loss of key personnel or their work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize our products, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and demand on management resources.

Risks Related to Being a Public Company

We will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will devote substantial time to compliance with our public company responsibilities and corporate governance practices.

We will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company, and these expenses may increase even more after we are no longer an emerging growth company, as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as rules adopted, and to be adopted, by the SEC and Nasdaq, and other applicable securities rules and regulations, which impose various requirements on public companies, including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these public company requirements. Moreover, we expect these rules and regulations to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. The increased costs will increase our net loss. We may need to hire additional legal, accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and maintain an internal audit function.

In addition, changing laws, regulations, and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs, and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations, and standards are subject to varying interpretations and may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations, and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations, and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be adversely affected.

The rules and regulations applicable to public companies make it more expensive for us to obtain and maintain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee, and qualified executive officers.

We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.

Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.

Most of the members of our management team have limited to no experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Additionally, certain members of our management team were recently hired, including Hull Xu, who began serving as CFO in April 2022. Our management team has not worked together at prior companies that were publicly traded. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage their new roles and responsibilities.

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Our transition to being a public company subjects us to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Shares

The Amended and Restated Charter requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name against our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders for breach of fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware, which may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders, as applicable.

The Amended and Restated Charter requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name against our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders for breach of fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware or, if the Court of Chancery does not have subject matter jurisdiction, in the federal district court of the State of Delaware. This exclusive forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us, or any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims, although our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived their compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. However, there is no assurance that a court would enforce the choice of forum provision contained in the Amended and Restated Charter. If a court were to find such provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm their business, operating results and financial condition.

The Amended and Restated Charter provides that the exclusive forum provision will be applicable to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. The Amended and Restated Charter also provides that to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

The exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, federal courts will have exclusive jurisdiction over suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. As noted above, the Amended and Restated Charter provides that the federal district courts of the United States will be, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action under the Securities Act. Due to the concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts created by Section 22 of the Securities Act over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce the exclusive form provision. Investors also cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in the Amended and Restated Charter and the Bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

The Amended and Restated Charter and the Bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control or changes in our management without the consent of our board of directors. These provisions include:

•        no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;

•        the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death, or removal of a director with or without cause by stockholders, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

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•        the ability of our board of directors to determine whether to issue shares of our preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer;

•        a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;

•        the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the board of directors, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;

•        limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers;

•        controlling the procedures for the conduct and scheduling of stockholder meetings;

•        providing for a staggered board, in which the members of the board of directors are divided into three classes to serve for a period of three years from the date of their respective appointment or election;

•        granting the ability to remove directors with cause by the affirmative vote of 66 ⅔% in voting power of the outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote thereon;

•        requiring the affirmative vote of at least 66 ⅔% of the voting power of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, to amend the Bylaws or Articles V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X of the Amended and Restated Charter; and

•        advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to the our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

These provisions, alone or together, could delay hostile takeovers and changes in control of us or changes in our board of directors and our management.

As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the DGCL, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of common stock. Any provision of Amended and Restated Charter, the Bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for common stock. For more information, see the section of this prospectus captioned “Description of Securities — Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law and the Amended and Restated Charter and Bylaws.”

Claims for indemnification by our directors and officers may reduce our available funds to satisfy successful third-party claims against us and may reduce the amount of money available to us.

The Bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers, in each case to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. In addition, as permitted by Section 145 of the DGCL, the Bylaws and the indemnification agreements that we have entered into or will enter into with our directors and officers provide that:

•        we will indemnify our directors and officers for serving the Company in those capacities or for serving other business enterprises at our request, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Delaware law provides that a corporation may indemnify such person if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the registrant and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful;

•        we may, in our discretion, indemnify employees and agents in those circumstances where indemnification is permitted by applicable law;

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•        we are required to advance expenses, as incurred, to our directors and officers in connection with defending a proceeding, except that such directors or officers shall undertake to repay such advances if it is ultimately determined that such person is not entitled to indemnification;

•        we are not obligated pursuant to the Bylaws to indemnify a person with respect to proceedings initiated by that person against us or our other indemnitees, except with respect to proceedings authorized by our board of directors or brought to enforce a right to indemnification; and

•        the rights conferred in the Bylaws are not exclusive, and we are authorized to enter into indemnification agreements with our directors, officers, employees and agents and to obtain insurance to indemnify such persons.

Our only significant asset is the ownership of 100% of Legacy Cepton’s common stock, and we do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of the common stock.

We have no direct operations and no significant assets other than the ownership of 100% of Legacy Cepton’s common stock. We depend on Legacy Cepton’s distributions, loans and other payments to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations, including our expenses as a publicly-traded company, and to pay any dividends with respect to the common stock. Applicable state law and contractual restrictions, including in agreements governing our and/or Legacy Cepton’s current and future indebtedness, as well as the financial condition and operating requirements of Legacy Cepton, may limit our ability to obtain cash from Legacy Cepton. Thus, we do not expect to pay cash dividends on the common stock. Any future dividend payments are within the absolute discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, working capital requirements, capital expenditure requirements, financial condition, level of indebtedness, contractual restrictions with respect to payment of dividends, business opportunities, anticipated cash needs, provisions of applicable law and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in the common stock or warrants unless you sell those securities, as applicable, for a price greater than that which you paid for it. In addition, in the event that our board of directors and stockholders were to approve a sale of all of the common stock holdings of Legacy Cepton, your equity interest would be in a holding company with no material assets other than those assets and other consideration received in such transaction.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our securities adversely, the price and trading volume of our securities could decline.

The trading market for our securities will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, market or competitors. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on us. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of us, our share price and trading volume would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding the common stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of shares of the common stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on it, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.

Future issuances of debt securities and equity securities may adversely affect us, including the market price of the common stock and may be dilutive to existing stockholders.

In the future, we may incur debt or issue equity securities ranking senior to the common stock. Those securities will generally have priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future, including the shares initially reserved under the 2022 Plan, the shares initially reserved under the ESPP, the Earnout Shares, the shares underlying outstanding options and the Commitment Shares, may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of the common stock. Because our decision to issue debt or equity in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of the common stock and be dilutive to existing stockholders.

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In addition, we are obligated to issue Lincoln Park up to an additional 150,000 shares of our common stock as a commitment fee on August 9, 2022. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, Lincoln Park agreed to purchase from us a total of up to $100,000,000 of our common stock from time to time over a 36-month period (any such shares, the “Purchased Shares”). We generally have the right to control the timing and amount of any future sales of our common stock to Lincoln Park. Additional sales of our common stock, if any, to Lincoln Park will depend upon market conditions and other factors to be determined by us. We may ultimately decide to sell to Lincoln Park all, some or none of the shares of our common stock that may be available for us to sell pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. If and when we do sell shares of our common stock to Lincoln Park, after Lincoln Park has acquired such shares, Lincoln Park may resell all, some or none of such shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion, subject to compliance with securities laws. Therefore, sales to Lincoln Park by us could result in substantial dilution to the interests of other holders of its shares of our common stock. Additionally, the sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock to Lincoln Park, or the anticipation of such sales, could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that it might otherwise wish to effect sales.

There can be no assurance we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.

Our common stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “CPTN” and “CPTNW,” respectively. Our continued eligibility for listing may depend on the number of GCAC’s shares that are redeemed. If Nasdaq delists our shares from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, we and our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including, but not limited to:

•        a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;

•        reduced liquidity for our securities;

•        a determination that the common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in the common stock to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for the common stock;

•        a limited amount of analyst coverage; and

•        a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which is a federal statute, prevents or preempts the states from regulating the sale of certain securities, which are referred to as “covered securities.” Because the common stock and warrants are listed on Nasdaq, they are covered securities. Although the states are preempted from regulating the sale of our securities, the federal statute does allow the states to investigate companies if there is a suspicion of fraud, and, if there is a finding of fraudulent activity, then the states can regulate or bar the sale of covered securities in a particular case. While we are not aware of a state, other than the State of Idaho, having used these powers to prohibit or restrict the sale of securities issued by blank check companies, certain state securities regulators view blank check companies unfavorably and might use these powers, or threaten to use these powers, to hinder the sale of securities of blank check companies in their states. Further, if we are no longer listed on Nasdaq, our securities would not be covered securities and we would be subject to regulation in each state in which we offer our securities.

An active market for our securities may not develop, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

The price of our securities may vary significantly due to factors specific to us as well as to general market or economic conditions. Furthermore, an active trading market for our securities may never develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. Holders of our securities may be unable to sell their securities unless a market can be established and sustained.

The market price of our common stock may decline as a result of the Business Combination or other market factors.

The market values of our securities may vary significantly from their prices on the date the Business Combination Agreement was executed, or the date on which GCAC’s stockholders vote on the Business Combination and the Closing Date.

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In addition, fluctuations in the price of our securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. Prior to the Business Combination, there has not been a public market for our common stock. Accordingly, the valuation ascribed to us may not be indicative of the price that will prevail in the trading market. If an active market for our securities develops and continues, the trading price of our securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

The market price of our common stock may decline as a result of the Business Combination and for a number of other reasons including if:

•        investors react negatively to the prospects of our business and the prospects of the Business Combination;

•        the effect of the Business Combination on our business and prospects is not consistent with the expectations of financial or industry analysts;

•        we do not achieve the perceived benefits of the Business Combination as rapidly or to the extent anticipated by financial or industry analysts;

•        actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;

•        changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;

•        success of competitors;

•        changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning us or the transportation industry in general;

•        operating and share price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;

•        our ability to market new and enhanced products and technologies on a timely basis;

•        changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

•        our ability to meet compliance requirements;

•        commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;

•        changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

•        the volume of our shares of common stock available for public sale; or

•        any major change in our Board or management.

Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for the common stock to decline.

The sale of shares of the common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of the common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.

All shares issued in the Business Combination to Legacy Cepton stockholders are freely tradable without registration under the Securities Act, and without restriction by persons other than our “affiliates” (as defined under Rule 144 of the Securities Act, “Rule 144”), including our directors, executive officers and other affiliates.

In connection with the Business Combination, certain Legacy Cepton stockholders, who collectively own 127,613,704 shares of the common stock have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, not to dispose of or hedge any of their shares of the common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of the common stock during the period from February 10, 2022 continuing through the earliest of: (i) February 10, 2023, (ii) the last trading day

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when the last reported sale price of the common stock equals or exceeds $12.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for 20 trading days within any 30-trading day period commencing at least 60 days after February 10, 2022, or (iii) such date on which we complete a liquidation, merger, stock exchange, reorganization or other similar transaction that results in all of the our stockholders having the right to exchange their shares of the common stock for cash, securities or other property.

Any Purchased Shares will also be registered under a registration statement and become eligible for sale in the public market. In addition, the 15,123,142 shares of the common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2022 Plan and 3,080,960 shares reserved for further issuance under the ESPP will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to any applicable vesting requirements, lockup agreements and other restrictions imposed by law. We are expected to file one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register shares of the common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of the common stock issued pursuant to the 2022 Plan and ESPP. Any such Form S-8 registration statements will automatically become effective upon filing. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements will be available for sale in the open market. The initial registration statement on Form S-8 is also expected to cover shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding Legacy Cepton equity awards that were outstanding and assumed by Cepton in connection with the Closing.

In the future, we may also issue our securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The amount of shares of the common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of the then-outstanding shares of the common stock. Any issuance of additional securities in connection with investments or acquisitions may result in additional dilution to our stockholders.

Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could result in a delisting of our securities.

If, after listing, we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our securities. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of the securities and would impair your ability to sell or purchase the securities when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we can provide no assurance that any action taken by it to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow our securities to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our securities, prevent our securities from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements. Additionally, if our securities are not listed on, or become delisted from, Nasdaq for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as well as a smaller reporting company within the meaning of the Securities Act, and if we take advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies or smaller reporting companies, this could make our securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare our performance with other public companies.

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. As such, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, including, but not limited to, (i) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (ii) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and (iii) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, our stockholders may not have access to certain information they may deem important. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of: (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) ending December 31, 2026, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of the prior fiscal year’s second fiscal quarter; and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. Investors may find our securities less attractive because we will rely on these exceptions. We cannot predict whether investors will find our securities less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our securities

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less attractive as a result of our reliance on these exemptions, the trading prices of our securities may be lower than they otherwise would be, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the trading prices of our securities may be more volatile.

Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

Additionally, we qualify as a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Smaller reporting companies may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure obligations, including, among other things, providing only two years of audited financial statements. We will remain a smaller reporting company until the last day of the fiscal year in which (i) the market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $250 million as of the prior June 30, or (ii) our annual revenues exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year and the market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30. To the extent we take advantage of such reduced disclosure obligations, we may also make comparison of our financial statements with other public companies difficult or impossible.

We may redeem your unexpired Public Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your Public Warrants worthless.

We have the ability to redeem outstanding Public Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of our common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we gives notice of redemption. If and when the Public Warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if it is unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding Public Warrants could force you to: (i) exercise your Public Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (ii) sell your Public Warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your Public Warrants or (iii) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Public Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your Public Warrants. Because the $18.00 trading price referred to above substantially exceeds the current trading price of our common stock and we have registered for resale a substantial number of shares of our common stock, the sale of which could cause the price of our common stock to decrease, we may be unable to redeem the Public Warrants and the Public Warrants may expire worthless.

The unaudited pro forma financial information included herein may not be indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations would have been.

The unaudited pro forma financial information included herein is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations would have been had the Business Combination been completed on the dates indicated.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

All of the common stock and the Private Warrants offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.

We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $158.7 million from the exercise of the Public Warrants and the Private Placement Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Public Warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds, if any, from the exercise of the Public Warrants and the Private Placement Warrants for working capital and general corporate purposes. Because the exercise price of the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants substantially exceeds the current trading price of our common stock, it is unlikely that holders of our warrants will be able to exercise such warrants in the near future, if at all. As a result, we are unlikely to receive any proceeds from the exercise of our warrants in the near future, if at all. We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the Public Warrants and the Private Placement Warrants. There is no assurance that the holders of the Public Warrants and the Private Placement Warrants will elect to exercise any or all of such Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants, and there may be no economic incentive for such holders to exercise unless and until the trading price of our common stock exceeds $11.50 per share. To the extent that the Public Warrants or the Private Placement Warrants are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Public Warrants or the Private Placement Warrants will decrease.

In considering our capital requirements and sources of liquidity, we have not relied on the receipt of proceeds from the exercise of the Public Warrants or Private Placement Warrants. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources” for more information.

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MARKET PRICE AND DIVIDEND INFORMATION

Market Information

Our common stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “CPTN” and “CPTNW,” respectively. As of March 31, 2022, the closing price of our common stock and warrants was $3.88 and $0.49, respectively. As of March 31, 2022, there were 44 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividend Policy

We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the growth and development of our business. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We do not intend to pay cash dividends to our stockholders in the foreseeable future. Investors should not purchase our common stock with the expectation of receiving cash dividends.

Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Defined terms included below shall have the same meaning as terms defined and included elsewhere in this prospectus. Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “Legacy Cepton” and the “Company” prior to the closing of the Business Combination are intended to mean Cepton Technologies, Inc., a Delaware corporation and “GCAC” refers to Growth Capital Acquisition Corp. prior to the Closing. References in this prospectus to “Cepton” and the “Company” after the closing of the Business Combination are intended to mean Cepton, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Introduction

The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X as amended by the final rule, Release No. 33-10786 “Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses.”

GCAC was formed as a blank check company under the laws of the State of Delaware on January 4, 2010 under the name PinstripesNYS, Inc., and subsequently submitted a registration statement under the name Growth Capital Acquisition Corp. on February 27, 2020 for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses.

Cepton provides state-of-the-art, intelligent, lidar-based solutions for a range of markets such as automotive (ADAS/AV), smart cities, smart spaces, and smart industrial applications. Cepton’s patented MMT®-based lidar technology enables reliable, scalable, and cost-effective solutions that deliver long range, high resolution 3D perception for smart applications.

The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 combines the historical balance sheet of GCAC as of December 31, 2021 with the historical balance sheet of Legacy Cepton as of December 31, 2021 on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on December 31, 2021.

GCAC and Legacy Cepton have different fiscal years. GCAC’s fiscal year ends on March 31, whereas Legacy Cepton’s fiscal year ends on December 31. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 combines the historical statement of operations of GCAC and Legacy Cepton for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021. The historical statement of operations of GCAC for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, was derived from GCAC’s unaudited condensed statement of operations for the nine months ended December 31, 2020 (as restated), audited condensed statement of operations for the year ended March 31, 2021 (as restated), and unaudited condensed statement of operations for the nine months ended December 31, 2021. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 combines the historical statements of operations of GCAC and Legacy Cepton for such period on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on January 1, 2021.

The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 and the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 are presented after giving effect to the Business Combination. In connection with the consummation of the Business Combination, the following occurred:

•        Merger Sub, the wholly owned subsidiary of GCAC, merged with and into Legacy Cepton, with Legacy Cepton surviving as a wholly owned subsidiary of Cepton;

•        the issuance of 141,614,344 shares of common stock as Consideration Shares based on the Per Share Stock Consideration Rate of 2.451 shares and 57,768,478 Legacy Cepton Outstanding Shares (reflecting Legacy Cepton outstanding common stock inclusive of converted and exercised preferred stock, Cepton Class F stock, and warrants).

•        the conversion of all 21,671,491 outstanding shares of Legacy Cepton preferred stock and 8,372,143 shares of Legacy Cepton Class F stock into 30,043,634 shares of Legacy Cepton common stock that rolled over into 73,649,326 shares of Cepton common stock based on the Per Share Stock Consideration Rate;

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•        the redesignation of GCAC’s outstanding 1,660,460 Public Shares (net of redemptions of 15,589,540 Public Shares) and 4,312,500 Sponsor Shares as Cepton common stock;

•        the exercise of warrants to purchase an aggregate of 60,000 shares of Legacy Cepton common stock for shares of Cepton common stock that rolled over into 137,125 shares of Cepton common stock based on the Per Share Stock Consideration Rate, calculated in accordance with the treasury method of accounting;

•        the conversion of all 3,420,746 outstanding vested Legacy Cepton options and all 2,082,611 outstanding unvested Legacy Cepton options into 8,385,658 vested options and 5,105,337 unvested options in Cepton, respectively, based on the Per Share Stock Consideration Rate (the “Converted Options”). In accordance with the Business Combination Agreement, the exercise price per share of all outstanding vested and unvested Legacy Cepton options will be adjusted by dividing the applicable exercise price per share immediately prior to the Business Combination by the Per Share Stock Consideration Rate. The Converted Options are presented on a diluted basis, calculated in accordance with the treasury stock method of accounting;

•        the issuance of 5,950,000 shares of Cepton common stock to the PIPE Investors in exchange for $59.5 million, or $10.00 per share, in consideration;

•        the recognition of a liability related to the issuance of up to 13,000,000 Earnout Shares contingently issuable to holders of Cepton common stock based upon achievement of the Share Price Milestones. Share Price Milestones are met if the share price of Cepton common stock equals or exceeds $15.00 per share (first Share Price Milestone) and/or $17.50 per share (second Share Price Milestone) for any 20 trading days within any consecutive 30-trading day period that occurs after the Closing, and on or prior to the three-year anniversary of the Closing. Upon achievement of the first Share Price Milestone, 7,000,000 Earnout Shares shall be deemed earned and issued and 6,000,000 Earnout Shares shall be deemed earned and issued upon achievement of the second Share Price Milestone. The Earnout Shares will not be issued if none of the Share Price Milestones are met as of the three-year anniversary of the Closing; and

•        the issuance of 50,000 shares of Cepton common stock to Lincoln Park as consideration for entering into the Purchase Agreement.

The historical financial information of GCAC was derived from the unaudited financial statements of GCAC as of and for the nine months ended December 31, 2021 and from the audited financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2021 (as restated), included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. The historical financial information of Legacy Cepton was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Legacy Cepton as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021 included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This information should be read together with GCAC’s and Legacy Cepton’s audited and unaudited financial statements and related notes, the sections titled “Other Information Related to GCAC — GCAC’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Cepton’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

The pro forma combined financial statements have been presented for informational purposes only and are not necessarily indicative of what Cepton’s financial position or results of operations actually would have been had the transactions been completed as of the dates indicated. In addition, the pro forma data do not purport to project the future financial position or operating results of Cepton. The actual financial position and results of operations may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.

Accounting for the Business Combination

The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with GAAP. Under this method of accounting, GCAC, who is the legal acquirer, will be treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes and Legacy Cepton will be treated as the accounting acquirer. Legacy Cepton has been determined to be the accounting acquirer based on evaluation of the following facts and circumstances:

•        Legacy Cepton’s existing stockholders have more than 90% of the voting interest of Cepton;

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•        Legacy Cepton’s senior management comprise the senior management of Cepton;

•        the directors nominated by Legacy Cepton represent the majority of the board of directors of Cepton;

•        Legacy Cepton is the larger entity based on historical revenues and business operations;

•        Legacy Cepton’s operations comprise the ongoing operations of Cepton; and

•        GCAC assumed the name Cepton, Inc.

Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of a capital transaction in which Legacy Cepton is issuing stock for the net assets of GCAC. The net assets of GCAC will be stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination will be those of Legacy Cepton.

Description of the Business Combination

Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, the aggregate stock consideration issued by Cepton in the Business Combination was $1.535 billion, consisting of 153,537,304 newly issued shares of Cepton common stock valued at $10.00 per share. Legacy Cepton shareholders received $1.416 billion in the form of 141,614,344 newly issued shares of Cepton common stock. GCAC public shareholders received $16.6 million in the form of 1,660,460 newly issued shares of Cepton common stock, the PIPE Investors received $59.5 million in the form of 5,950,000 newly issued shares of Cepton common stock, and the Sponsor received $43.1 million in the form of 4,312,500 newly issued shares of Cepton common stock in exchange for GCAC’s existing Class B common stock. The issuance of 50,000 shares of Cepton common stock to Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC as consideration for entering into the Purchase Agreement is not considered as part of the aggregate stock consideration as the Purchase Agreement was entered into separately from the Business Combination Agreement. The following represents the consideration at closing of the Business Combination:

(in millions)

   

Share issuance to GCAC shareholders, net of redemptions

 

$

16.6

Share issuance to Sponsor

 

 

43.1

Share issuance to Legacy Cepton shareholders

 

 

1,416.2

Share issuance to PIPE Investors

 

 

59.5

Share Consideration at Closing

 

$

1,535.4

The value of share consideration issuable at the Closing was determined by application of the Exchange Ratio of 2.451, which is based on the implied value of $10.00 per share prior to the Business Combination.

The following tables summarize the pro forma Cepton shares of common stock issued and outstanding immediately after the Business Combination both on an issued and outstanding share and diluted basis:

 

Issued and Outstanding
Share Basis

 

Diluted Basis(1)

   

Shares

 

% Owned

 

Shares

 

% Owned

Public Shares, net of redemptions

 

1,660,460

 

1.1

%

 

1,660,460

 

1.0

%

Sponsor Shares

 

4,312,500

 

2.8

%

 

4,312,500

 

2.7

%

Consideration Shares issued in the merger

 

141,614,344

 

92.2

%

 

150,000,000

 

92.6

%

Shares issued to PIPE Investors

 

5,950,000

 

3.9

%

 

5,950,000

 

3.7

%

Shares issued to LPC

 

50,000

 

%

 

50,000

 

%

Pro Forma common stock at December 31, 2021

 

153,587,304

 

100.0

%

 

161,972,960

 

100.0

%

____________

(1)      Diluted Basis is equal to the issued and outstanding share basis plus the 7,979,544 vested Converted Options.

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The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 and the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 are based on the historical financial statements of GCAC and Legacy Cepton. The unaudited pro forma adjustments represent management’s estimates based on information available as of the date of these unaudited pro forma combined financial statements. The assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments are described in the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ materially from the assumptions used to present the accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information as additional information becomes available and analyses are performed. Certain amounts that appear in this section may not sum due to rounding.

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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED BALANCE SHEET
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2021
(In thousands)

 

(A) 
Legacy
Cepton

 

(B) 
GCAC

 

Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments

     

Pro
Forma
Balance
Sheet

Assets

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

     

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

     

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

3,654

 

$

108

 

$

172,520

 

 

(1)

 

$

   

 

 

 

 

 

59,500

 

 

(2)

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

(37,656

)

 

(3)

 

 

   

 

   

 

   

 

(155,896

)

 

(9)

 

 

42,230

Short-term investments

 

 

2,836

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

2,836

Accounts receivable

 

 

500

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

500

Inventories

 

 

2,523

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

2,523

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

6,998

 

 

11

 

 

(358

)

 

(3)

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

1,598

 

 

(11)

 

 

8,249

Total current assets

 

 

16,511

 

 

119

 

 

39,708

 

     

 

56,338

Cash held in trust account

 

 

 

 

172,520

 

 

(172,520

)

 

(1)

 

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

480

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

480

Other assets

 

 

293

 

 

 

 

2,272

 

 

(3)

 

 

2,565

Total assets

 

$

17,284

 

$

172,639

 

$

(130,540

)

     

$

59,383

   

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

     

 

 

Liabilities, convertible preferred stock, and stockholders’ equity

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

     

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

     

 

 

Accounts payable

 

 

2,547

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

2,547

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

2,777

 

 

1,572

 

 

(3,001

)

 

(3)

 

 

1,348

Total current liabilities

 

 

5,324

 

 

1,572

 

 

(3,001

)

     

 

3,895

   

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

     

 

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

23

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

23

Warrant Liability

 

 

 

 

12,472

 

 

(9,885

)

 

(10)

 

 

2,587

Earnout Liability

 

 

 

 

 

 

74,998

 

 

(8)

 

 

74,998

Total liabilities

 

$